Kristin Racis

Dakotah Wiest

Mai Hoang

Cassandra Dunn

Julie Reighard

I4I - Bizi Marketplace Marketing
Sponsored By: William Thomas

Bizi Marketplace is a new app coming soon to Juniata College, and in order to spread the word about who they are, a group of students from Project Management helped create marketing materials for the business. The marketing materials included gaining social media exposure, creating content for social media such as infographics and photography, a website, and more that will bring awareness to the business for when they are ready to launch.

Julie Reighard

Why is rural healthcare failing?
Sponsored By: James Meersman

There has been a dramatic increase in rural hospitals closing and over half are in financial jeopardy and struggle to stay open. This paper explores the reasoning behind these tragic trends. Rural areas have fewer resources, fewer people and a less stable economy compared to urban areas. Small local businesses are unable to provide health insurance to their employees and private insurance is more expensive in rural areas compared to their salaries. Additionally, fewer hospitals are able to operate on just Medicare alone and those who seek care are unable to pay their following their care. These reasons are the main factors along with new technologies. My analysis will include financial data to explain the recent trends and how it compares to their urban healthcare counterparts.

Sierra Waite

Alyssa Hove

Theresa Joson

Samantha Norden

The Psychological "Truth" on Digital Relationships: The Shift from Offline to Online Dating
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

We argue that digital relationships shape our identity by altering us psychologically, which changes how we present our “authentic” selves. Our group plans to discuss the psychological "truth" on digital relationships. We will cover the psychology of dating through a discussion on the shift from offline to online dating, the uses and gratifications theory, and security and the self.

Martin Berger

Emily Hoffeditz

Emma Kelley

Qian Yang

Allison Rismondo

Juniata Web Project (Non-Technical)
Sponsored By: Marlene Burkhardt

We are taking and uploading 360 photos of the Juniata Campus as well as the surrounding areas in order to increase the attractiveness of Juniata to prospective students.

Hunter Winters

Jack the Janitor and the Slave Smuggling Fraternity of Gettysburg
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

The poem titled Jack the Janitor was written in 1860 by the unknown author Homer. The work tells about the work that Jack, whose real name is John Hopkins, did at the college including maintenance, cleaning, and ringing the bell to announce the start and end of classes. This however only reveals a small portion of the life of John Hopkins. His importance extends beyond what this poem tells about him and his real connection lies with the Black Ducks. The Black Ducks were members of the Beta Delta college fraternity who smuggled runaway slaves through Gettysburg College (at the time was known as Pennsylvania College) in the years right before the Civil War. This group developed a special system of codes and symbols that helped them move slaves to various parts of the Underground Railroad network. Hopkins was part of this large network of Abolitionist individuals and communities but he was particularly crucial since part of his job allowed him to find slaves efficiently. This job was working in the neighboring forests chopping wood that was used to heat the entirety of the college. While working there, he frequently found runaway slaves who he could then aid in their journey further north. He then connected with the Black Ducks who escorted them to the next hideaway. Hopkins also became one of the most prominent African Americans in Gettysburg.

Marissa Cubbage

Catherine Neville

Meaghen Stewart

Does Stocking Streams with Trout Affect Crayfish Cambarus bartonii Feeding Preference?
Sponsored By: Norris Muth

We completed a feeding preference test on central PA crayfish species Cambarus bartonii (Appalachian Brook crayfish) for stocked Salmo trutta (Brown trout) or native Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook trout). We collected crayfish from four streams that varied in the proximity and degree of recent trout stocking events. We conducted both a flowing Y-apparatus set of trials (with brown trout samples at one arm and brook trout samples at the other) as well as a static aquarium-based experiment (with brown trout samples and brook trout samples on different sides of an aquarium). In the y-apparatus experiment, crayfish from the two streams farthest from a stocking site had a significant preference for brook trout (n=26, df=2, p=0.015), but crayfish from the two streams closest to stocking site had no preference (n=31, df=2, p=0.542). Crayfish exhibited no detectable feeding preference in the aquarium trials (as measured in percent time with Brown or Brook trout) (p=0.828 for streams near stocking site, p=0.288 for streams far from stocking site). There was no correlation between crayfish interaction with Brown trout and distance from stocking site ( r=0.087, p= 0.062). Overall, our results suggest that a history of exposure to stocked brown trout did not cause a detectable preference or differential perception of brown or brook trout as food sources. However, a lack of historic exposure to brown trout may cause crayfish to be more reluctant to accept brown trout as a food source (as supported by the y-apparatus trials).

Ashley Clark

How the Civil War and Underground Railroad Influenced Slavery
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

During the Civil War, slavery was definitely a controversial topic. Because of the Civil War, some slaves were provided with a better chance of actually escaping than others. When reading the narrative, "The Story of Mattie J. Jackson; Her Parentage – Experience of Eighteen Years in Slavery – Incidents During the War – Her Escape from Slavery", written by a young slave named Mattie J. Jackson, readers can see that the time period of this narrative influenced her life dramatically. This narrative was written in the late 1800s, during the time period of the Civil War. In this narrative, Mattie explains that over the course of her life she tried to run away a few times, and eventually she started finding refuge at the camp of some Union Soldiers. She was caught multiple times and brought back to her master, but Mattie differs from other slaves because she had the continuous help from these soldiers. Mattie even witnessed the punishment of her master for him being a slave-owner and mistreating her. In conclusion, on my poster, I will include how the Civil War was part of the reason that Mattie eventually escaped slavery, but I’ll also expand of the fact that the underground railroad also played a major role. Mattie’s case was special, and the combination of the time period of her life mixed with the events happening during this period allowed Mattie to eventually have a well-deserved happy ending.

Emily Dowler

Evan Bair

Logan Keifman

Zhorea McAnuff

Jacob Niebler

Characterizing the Effects of Rifapentine on Morphine Metabolism through Competitive ELISA
Sponsored By: Lisa Gentile

The antibiotic rifapentine is a close derivative of rifampin, which is a member of the rifamycin-based antibiotics. Rifamycin antibiotics are commonly used in the treatment of bacterial infections, including active and latent tuberculosis. Previous studies have shown that rifampin increases the rate of metabolism of morphine. Rifapentine and rifampin have the same mechanism of action, leading to the hypothesis that rifapentine will increase the metabolism of morphine. One member of our group was on the 12th week of a rifapentine course when urine samples were taken to observe the metabolic activity of the antibiotic on morphine. Poppy seeds contain trace amounts of morphine on their coating. 2 grams of poppy seeds were consumed by two individuals, one of whom was taking rifapentine. The other individual served as the control. Urine samples were collected at 1 hour, 4 hours, 6 hours, and 16 hours following ingestion. The concentration of morphine in each urine sample was measured using an Immunalysis Morphine Specific Direct Competitive ELISA kit. Competitive binding of Horseradish peroxidase labeled morphine and unlabeled morphine to a limited amount of antibody coating the wells allows for the morphine level to be detected because Horseradish peroxidase reacts with the chromogenic reagent TMB to produce a colored product that can be quantified. The higher the concentration of morphine in a sample, the weaker the output signal because the signal refers to the amount of antibody sites bound to the enzyme conjugated morphine rather than the morphine in the sample. A spectrophotometer was used to measure absorbance values of standards of known morphine concentration and create a standard curve of known concentrations versus absorbance. The standard curve was used to quantify the morphine concentration in urine samples of unknown concentration. Results will show whether the individual who had been taking rifapentine had lower levels of morphine in their urine than the control individual, as anticipated. Morphine levels after 16 hours will serve as further evidence. We expect the control sample will still have significant morphine levels compared to the rifapentine sample because rifapentine increases the metabolism of morphine. This experiment may have significant implications for treating patients who are taking morphine and rifapentine simultaneously. Based on our results, a physician may need to either adjust the concentration of morphine or use a different active ingredient in an analgesic medication so that the effects are not significantly diminished.

Ben Schlenker

Jake Amsler

Stroud Mansion: An Undergraduate Archeological Experience
Sponsored By: Jonathan Burns

Home to the Monroe County Historical Association, historic Stroud Mansion is an excellent example of Georgian-style architecture in Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. Built by the town’s founder, Jacob Stroud, and continuously occupied since its construction in 1795, Stroud Mansion has an important place in local history. Recently planned improvements surrounding the building have warranted a PHMC grant for an excavation. To help mitigate the cost of the excavation Juniata College’s Cultural Resource Institute has partnered with the historical association. The initial survey of the site produced a vast array of artifacts from the mansion itself to an early archaic projectile point. Gun parts and case glass have also been found and are believed to be from Fort Hamilton, a French and Indian War fort which was commissioned by Benjamin Franklin. This excavation has created opportunities for Juniata students to facilitate both historic preservation and undergraduate education in a responsible and affordable manner. 

Abby Nevill

Isabella Gibbs

Carolyn Brown

Psychological Well-Being and Undergraduate Students
Sponsored By: Kathryn Westcott

Psychological well-being encompasses aspects of positive daily functioning including successful engagement of meaningful relationships, navigation of one’s environment, and realization of one’s fullest potential at different stages of life (Ryff, 1989; Bowman, 2010).  Levels of psychological well-being have been associated with individual's level of social well-being, as well as levels of personal distress, particularly for first year undergraduate college students (Conley, Kirsch, Dickson, & Bryant, 2014).

This study will examine the role of psychological well-being, as it relates to social well-being and perceived stress in undergraduate students (Ryff, 1989).  In addition, how psychological well-being, social well-being, and perceived stress vary as related to aspects of student characteristics, including Program of Emphasis (POE), gender, and undergraduate year, will be explored.  

Outcomes of this research would help to increase our understanding of student functioning in college, particularly for first year students’ transition experience.  Understanding potential differences in psychological well-being, social well-being, and perceived levels of stress based on characteristics of the students may help to identify ways to better support these students.  Interventions focused on healthy psychological well-being and related factors could provide students with supports needed for successful academic, emotional, and social transitions.

Benjamin Norton

Harpreet Chamdal

Ian Harpel

Shirho Choi

Mobile Apps: Changing Our Sense of Community
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

In 2007, Steve Jobs and Apple Inc. announced the iPhone and the introduced the app store. Since then, people have been creating and downloading apps of all sorts. There are currently millions of apps available for download on the app store. As we integrate apps into our daily lives, they begin to change the way we think. "Since the advent of the iPhone in early 2007, users could experience the functionality of personal computers on pocket-sized devices. These so-called “smartphones” and their associated mobile software “applications” or “apps” are becoming increasingly ubiquitous in our daily life (Rakestraw 1). The increasing usability of mobile apps changes our sense of community by removing physical boundaries with controversial consequences on our institutions.

Reece Norman

Designing Educational Games for a High School Physics Class
Sponsored By: Matthew Beaky

Getting high school students excited about science is no easy task. This is doubly true for physics in particular, because it is so heavily reliant on mathematics. By incorporating games that demonstrate physics principles into one’s instruction, students are given the opportunity to learn with their hands and have fun while doing it. High school physics is grounded heavily in Newtonian mechanics, a category that covers projectile motion, forces, momentum, energy, inertia, and many more subjects besides. Each of these subtopics traditionally receives its own unit in the high school classroom. By allowing students to explore these ideas for themselves, they make invaluable connections about how the principles on the chalkboard apply to the world they live in. High school teachers, however, rarely have a large budget; they must make do with the materials on hand. With this idea in mind, I designed instructional games for each of these topics that can be constructed using only commonly found or cheaply purchased materials. The assembly and usage of these games will be detailed in the poster.

Grace Noll

Bradlee Sheredy

Marissa Cubbage

Crayfish habitat use, movement, and estimate of density in a forested central Pennsylvania stream
Sponsored By: George Merovich

Crayfish are dominant omnivores that are important components of functioning stream ecosystems. We focused on characterizing crayfish density and movement in this study. Our study stream was Tatman Run, a 4th order, forested mountain stream. We employed mark and recapture techniques to estimate crayfish densities. Crayfish were captured with baited minnow traps in October 2018 and were marked individually with a unique color code using the Visual Implant Elastomer (VIE) system. The total area of the survey spanned 775 m2. Marking occurred over 5 weeks, therefore we employed the Schnabel multiple mark-recapture method to estimate density. Out of 143 total crayfish caught, there were 13 recaptures. We estimated the density of crayfish to be 1.0 ± 0.002 per m². Throughout October, the movement of crayfish was erratic. Of the 13 recaptured crayfish, the distance travelled varied from 0-110 m. The average distance travelled by individual crayfishes was 18.5 ± 33.1 m. There was no statistical difference between number of crayfish found in riffle vs pool habitats (p=0.910). Additionally, there was no correlation between temperature and habitats where crayfish were found (p=0.757). Temperature was not statistically correlated with average number of crayfish captured per trap (p=0.168), but there appeared to be a negative trend. Our study provided important information on crayfish densities that is lacking, and we found the VIE system to work well.

Tommy Antonucci

Levi Jones

Analysis of Glucose Concentrations in Household Condiments using Enzyme Kinetics
Sponsored By: Lisa Gentile

Glucose is a simple sugar and the most abundant monosaccharide found in today’s foods. Glucose is also an important energy source in living organisms because it is a major component of many carbohydrates. A number of foods are high in glucose content, including fruit, juices and cereals. For some diabetics, monitoring one’s glucose intake is essential. In this experiment, the glucose content of several condiments (honey mustard, yellow mustard, ranch dressing, mayonnaise, soy sauce, honey, hot sauce, sriracha, ketchup and barbecue sauce) offered in the Juniata College cafeteria was measured. We hypothesized that barbecue sauce would have the highest glucose concentration based on evaluation of each condiment’s nutrition facts. The specificity of two enzymes to estimate the glucose concentration of each condiment was used. A coupled reaction converts glucose to a molecule that can be detected using UV/Vis spectroscopy (4-N-(p-benzoquinonimine)-antipyrine) using the enzymes glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase. Since glucose oxidase is only able to use glucose as a reducing agent, we hypothesized that the presence of other monosaccharides including fructose and galactose might not be detected accurately using this method. We determined this was not an issue for our purpose, as these simple sugars have been found to not elicit a glycemic response and thus are not particularly relevant for diabetics. The concentration of glucose in each condiment was estimated using the rate of light absorbance of each sample reaction compared to glucose samples of a known concentration. Results will be presented that allow for evaluation of the hypothesis that barbecue sauce will have the highest glucose concentration. We hope that individuals that need to monitor their glucose intake, such as diabetics, will consider the results of our study in choosing their diet.

Nathan DeSousa

Synthesis and Isolation of a Tetradentate N-oxide Schiff Base Ligand
Sponsored By: Peter Baran

Coordination complexes with chelating organic ligands and transition metals are studied for their biological and magnetic properties. The various applications of such complexes make this study a very important field of chemistry. The focus of this research is on polydentate N-oxide ligands, which contain an oxygen atom bonded to the nitrogen atom in a pyridine functional group. Understanding how the presence of the N-oxide influences the characteristics of formed complexes gives insight into their functionality. The formation and properties of a tetradentate N-oxide Schiff base ligand (L) is the subject of this study. In the first step of its synthesis, o­-phenylenediamine and 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde N-oxide (poxal) are reacted with sodium hydroxide to create the tridentate ligand poxpam. This has been reacted with poxal in the presence of sodium hydroxide to yield the target tetradentate N-oxide Schiff base ligand L. Infrared spectroscopic studies indicate that the resulting sample is a mixture of several species. Identification and isolation of the mixture components, especially the target ligand, is an important part of the analysis work being done. A complex of L with copper(II) nitrate can also be formed by reacting 2 equivalents of poxal with 1 equivalent of o­-phenylenediamine and 1 equivalent of copper(II) nitrate. Extracting the pure ligand L from the obtained complex is another approach currently being explored. Perfecting these synthetic pathways along with the crystallization of this ligand and understanding the complexes it can form is the focus of current research.

Matthew Hulsebosch

Synthesis of Copper Ion Complexes with 2,2'-bipyridine N,N'-dioxide
Sponsored By: Peter Baran

N-oxide ligands have the potential to form metal ion complexes with various d-block metals. 2,2’-Bipyridine N,N’-dioxide can be prepared by a condensation reaction of 2,2’-bipyridine chloride. Crystallographic and spectroscopic studies of these complexes will be presented.

Ha (Hailey) Tran

Early Childhood Education Center - Circle Time Project
Sponsored By: Beth Williams

A project regarding circle time at the Juniata Early Childhood Education Center. Circle time is a time period during the day where the children sit down with their teachers and learn about different topics and themes. It is also a way to prep them for Kindergarten. However, lately some children have not been willing to join and the teachers are having a hard time motivating them. The Circle Time Project focuses on adding new elements into the existing circle time format to make it more interesting and engaging to the children. The teachers can also have a new format that they can go back and forth so that the children are not too familiar with a same old structure. 

Nick Irvine

Cybersecurity in American elections
Sponsored By: J Barlow

My research focuses on the ability of foreign powers to interfere with American elections, specifically through cyber-attacks. It focuses heavily on the 2016 elections and how information was compromised across the country. It looks at how dated election equipment and a lack of policy directed at cybersecurity has led to these vulnerabilities.

Anisah Pasquale

Property or Human?
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

Celia was a slave, she was bought in 1850 by Robert Newsom when she was only 14 years old. Robert bought Celia mainly for the purpose of being his concubine. He raped her on their first trip home and didn't stop until the day he died. Celia was subjected to sexual abuse and rape almost every day for the five years that she was with the Newsom family. Her lover, another slave, told her that he wanted nothing to do with her so long as Newsom was having sex with her. Coerced by her lover, Celia attempted to end the abuse by going to Newsom's daughters. When they did nothing Celia decided to defend herself. She struck Newsom with a large stick, killing him in the process. Celia is taken to trial for the murder of Newsom. The trial becomes heated very quickly, asking questions that many people do not want to hear. They question the morality of slavery and Celia's situation; she is treated as property and supposedly has no say, but also has the right to defend her life and the right to trial. Is she human or is she property? 

Jacob Holsopple

Ecology of metabolic scaling: Interactive effects of temperature and predation regime on amphipod crustaceans in freshwater springs
Sponsored By: Douglas Glazier

According to common belief, the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate follows a 3/4-power law that results chiefly from intrinsic body-design constraints. However, several studies have shown that metabolic scaling varies considerably with log-log slopes ranging mostly between 2/3 and 1, and often in response to environmental factors. The mechanistic basis of these ecological effects is largely unknown. Furthermore, nothing is known about whether abiotic and biotic environmental factors have interactive effects on metabolic scaling. To address this question, our laboratory has been studying the interactive effects of temperature and predators on the ontogenetic metabolic scaling of the amphipod crustacean Gammarus minus found in local freshwater springs. We have acclimated amphipods from native spring habitats with and without fish predators to three temperatures (4, 10 and 16oC) in the laboratory. We estimated oxygen consumption rate, a proxy for metabolic rate, in amphipods with different sizes, using a closed respirometry system at controlled temperatures. Temperature interacts significantly with natural predator regime. Our results suggest that metabolic scaling is highly malleable and ecologically sensitive. The interactive effects of temperature and predators also show the importance of studying effects of global warming in realistic ecological contexts.   

Anh Huynh

Ben Tipton

Nicholas Smith

Virtual Realiy
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

The advancements in virtual reality (VR) benefit organizations such as business, medicine, and education through improved immersion and accessibility. Once virtual reality is getting more popular, people will have more opportunities to immerse themselves in the virtual world. Virtual Reality is also accessible to people with disabilities, and allows for more opportunities for people with disabilities. Moreover, VR applications have been using in business fields such as marketing, training, and designing. Despite the increase in benefits of VR that have been discovered in recent years, there are still negative aspects that must be addressed.

William Daugherty-Miller

Carolyn Morningstar

A Computational Exploration of Bacterial Manganese Catalase
Sponsored By: William Ames

Here we propose to explore the properties of bacterial strains as they relate to the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. This decomposition rate will depend on the manganese catalase activation sites and the variance between strains. To determine the familial relationships between different strains a phylogenetic tree has been made to map out thousands of bacterial strains that have or are suspected to have manganese catalase. T. Thermo. L. Plant and A.PCC were selected as the parent model catalases due to their crystal structures being known. Strains of significance in regards to manganese catalase are modeled with GROMACS molecular dynamics software, and cross checked with NAMD to analyse how closely the target strain wraps around a parent model. Initial structures were generated via homology modeling using MODELLER. This work will provide further information on how best to computationally analyze structural homology models of other enzymes.

Isabella Medaris

Rachel Campitell

Michael Iemolo

Kaden Zellers

Balancing Act: Reliability and Affordability in Glucometers
Sponsored By: Daniel Dries

Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are high because the body does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that processes stores sugar). Diabetes has no cure, but effective treatment can drastically improve patients’ quality of life. Due to the increase of diabetes in today’s society, particularly in low income areas, the need for an affordable device that does not compromise accuracy or precision in readings is higher than ever. Glucometers use the same general process to analyze glucose concentration as an in-lab enzyme-kinetics based glucose determination test, only more compact and without as much human error. Due to the inherent difficulty in measuring glucose directly, both of these tests use indirect methods of to determineing glucose concentration. In this lab, we attempt to compare the accuracy and precision of glucometers of various prices to each other and the in-lab quantification test. The results of this lab will indicate whether price does make an impact on the accuracy and precision of the glucometers and inform those with diabetes if there is an affordable option for glucose monitoring that maintains a reasonable degree of accuracy and precision. In order to get a quantitative baseline, standard solutions of glucose were tested using a kinetic enzyme assay. We then tested the same standardized samples using the commercially available glucometers, and then analyzed both for precision (repeatable result) and accuracy (how close it is to actual glucose level). The resulting data from each test is further analyzed for accuracy and precision, and then compared to reveal any variation in reliability of results between both the methods and the expense of glucometers.  In rural, low income areas finding a balance between an affordable and an accurate/precise glucometer is particularly important. The results of this research provide insight into whether lower cost medical supplies are as effective as more expensive options. This insight will help diabetics in rural, low income areas manage their treatment in a more cost-effective manner without compromising the quality of their equipment.

Owen Grafe

Alexis Martin

Assembly and Annotation of Sebastes Genomes
Sponsored By: Vincent Buonaccorsi

Evolution and speciation have many perspectives of study. An important area includes the sex determination (SD) mechanism that differs between species. Rockfish are an important model system for evolutionary study due to the diversity of the over 100 species in the Sebastes genus. Examination of SD in rockfishes may reveal evolution of sex determining pathways in the Sebastes genus. Diverse mechanisms for genetic determination of sex in fishes and other organisms include XY or ZW systems observed through the study of genes located on sex chromosomes.  However, this research is incomplete without a reference genome. Genomes are assembled in their chromosomal order and annotated for genes of various types. Extensive bioinformatic pipelines were used to annotate genes for S. melanostictus and S. nigrocinctus whole genome assemblies over 700Mbp in size. RNA and protein evidence were used to complete genome annotation, resulting in two complete genomes over 90% complete by Busco gene analysis. S. melanostictus predicted 22,771 genes with 1018 UTRs and S. nigrocinctus predicted 24,688 genes with 1040 UTRs.

Evan Quinter

Tracking Diurnal and Seasonal Movement of Brown Trout in the Little Juniata River
Sponsored By: Uma Ramakrishnan

As anthropogenic influences continually alter the natural state of the aquatic environment, species become increasingly susceptible to varying ecological conditions. To track the behavior of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in fluctuating river conditions, researchers from Juniata College implanted transmitters into 45 brown trout from the upper, middle and lower parts of the Little Juniata River. We recorded the location of the fish twice a week for one year by driving, walking and occasionally kayaking the river. To identify temperature changes along the river, we attached temperature loggers to kayaks and floated a 42 km stretch of the Little Juniata River. We discovered tagged trout were not present in stretches of the river warmer than 72ºC. We found significant differences in site fidelity between the different parts of the river, which could be the result of varying habitat quality and food availability. The upper-most site in our study contained the poorest habitat for brown trout, with an IBI score of 29, greater distances to cover, and lower average channel velocity. During the spawning period, trout at the lower and upper study sites showed lower site fidelity, whereas trout at the middle site showed an increase. Again, this difference could be explained by difference in habitat quality, with the middle site having a high percent of gravel and average depth, conditions ideal for the spawn. Our study demonstrates the critical role environmental variations play on brown trout movement and habitat use, both at the diurnal and seasonal scales. The results of our research are being used to identify sites for habitat restoration efforts.

Chance Bowersox

Molly Ulrich

Spore Migration of Ancient Earth
Sponsored By: Matthew Powell

The migration of ancient fossils can be determined with remapping ancient Earth's continents to determine their origin. Databases of spores with their genera and coordinates found are used to organize their characteristics. Ambitosporites are found in Central Pennsylvania and across Earth, and we have mapped their progression across the globe. 

Sarah Alexander

Rebecca Waite

Using VR to improve 3D spatial abilities in the geosciences
Sponsored By: Katharine Johanesen

From looking at a surface, can you visualize what’s going on below? Research from the past few decades has proven that it is possible to train our brains and spatial abilities in order to improve our potential to think about concepts in 3D. In geology, spatial abilities play a major role in understanding everything from strike and dip to the movement of tectonic plates and the effect that they have on Earth’s topography. Middle and high school classrooms also face these challenges in learning about earth science and other sciences. The goal of our research is to test whether virtual reality programs improve learning in earth science and geology classrooms.

Recent authors have used a general framework to explain the relationships present in describing the cognitive processes that occur in spatial thinking. Intrinsic properties are applied to the object itself, whereas extrinsic properties refer to the object in relation to the surrounding world. Static properties are those that can be used to describe an object, such as shape or color, and dynamic properties are those that can be used to explain the motion or movement of an object (Chatterjee 2008).

We propose to implement Google Earth VR using the HTC VIVE headset, as well a virtual field geology program. During the Fall 2019 semester, the Environmental Geology of 40 expected students will be split into the control and experimental groups for a portion of the semester. The control group will complete a pen-and-paper assignment teaching the concept, while the experimental group will complete a virtual reality assignment on the same concept.  We hypothesize that the students who participated in the experimental group will show greater improvement in scores from the pre-test to the post-test. By also collecting data on demographics and prior experiences, we will investigate whether students with specific backgrounds perform better.

If our hypothesis is confirmed, we can conclude that virtual reality lessons are an effective method to teach 3D concepts in geology classrooms and should be implemented more often. If the results show that the experiment did not work, then we would need to investigate why it does not align with previous data from the literature. We need to answer the question: are there other factors that are involved in the improvement of spatial abilities? Whatever that answer may be, it can certainly be helpful in teaching students complex concepts in the field of geology, as well as many other disciplines.



References:

Chatterjee, A. (2008, August). The neural organization of spatial thought and language. In Seminars in Speech and Language (Vol. 29, No. 03, pp. 226-238). © Thieme Medical Publishers.

Brenna Schields

Genetic Analysis of the Black Rat Snake (Pantherophis obsoletus) to Determine Eastern and Central Clade Presence in Central Pennsylvania
Sponsored By: John Matter

The black rat snake (previously identified as Pantherophis obsoletus) is a broadly distributed species that occurs over much of the east-central United States. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA reveals the occurrence of three genetically distinct glades, likely associated with glacial advance during the Pleistocene period. Two of these clades occur in Pennsylvania, the Eastern and Central clades (which have been designated as P. alleghaniensis and P. spiloides, respectively). These clades have slight morphological (coloration/scalation) and genetic differences, but distribution of these species across central Pennsylvania is unclear. We assessed the genetic identity of rat snakes from Huntingdon Co, PA by isolating the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from scale samples. Genomic DNA was extracted and cytochrome b was amplified using PCR, which was then sequenced and compared to determine species identity of individual snakes.

Kyle Sommers

Progress toward the synthesis of pyridyl compounds to mimic bioinorganic enzymes
Sponsored By: William Ames

The project reported here, focuses on the synthesis of pyridyl compounds containing methylpyridine or quinoline moieties to be used as Mn ligands. The overarching purpose for this project is to measure the exchange coupling between the, hypothetically, mono-μ-oxo bridged Mn ions for each synthesized complex. Additionally, we will use density functional theory to investigate the magnetic and electronic properties of these complexes. Previous research, by the group of Kovacs, highlighted sulfur-coordinated molecules which were reported to have a wide range of exchange coupling values, despite the complexes being very structurally similar. As such, we are investigating to see if exchange coupling values can be tuned through simple structural modifications. We have successfully synthesized the pyridine mono-μ-oxo bridged dimer and are continuing development with the methylpyridine and quinolone moieties. We hope that our work will allow us to make reasonable predictions regarding the relationship between structure and exchange coupling which we hope will aid our understanding behind the structure and function of bioinorganic enzymes such as: the oxygen evolving complex, class 1b ribonucleotide reductase, and manganese catalase

Marissa Cubbage

Christopher Barto

Colton Moyer

Hunter Price

Jeremy Pritts

Ashley Sweigart

Stream ecosystem conditions of a first order stream along a pipeline corridor
Sponsored By: George Merovich

Since the establishment of the Brumbaugh environmental and educational forest (BEEF) owned by Juniata College, no organized environmental research has been conducted. Therefore, we gathered baseline aquatic biological, chemical, and physiological data for the first order watershed on the property. Wemeasured water quality conditions, collected macroinvertebrates to determine stream health, and sampledfish assemblages. Water sampling indicated fair water quality, however the water was very soft, which is typical high elevation mountain stream. Macroinvertebrate community structure was diverse and dominated by mayflies and stoneflies, which indicated consistent fair water quality (IBI Score). Electrofishing showed a fish assemblage dominated by creek chub and black nose dace, with a few green sunfish and one spotfin shiner. With these baseline data, future Juniata research students can produce quality research that answers informed and relevant questions about the property



 

Stephanie Waltersdorff

Jeanette Harijanto

Synthesis of Carboxylate Carbenes via a Carboxylic Acid Protecting Group Strategy
Sponsored By: John Unger

Carbenes are unique organic intermediates that are useful in organic synthesis. With only two bonding partners and two free electrons, these low-valent carbon species are often highly reactive. They have ambiphilic properties and possess the ability to behave as both nucleophiles and electrophiles.

Beta-heteroatom-stabilized carbenes are a specific member of the carbonyl carbene family that demonstrate nucleophilic reactivity. This property is unusual among carbonyl carbenes and is predicted to be useful for organic synthesis, allowing reactions that would otherwise be unattainable. We are specifically targeting the synthesis of alpha-diazoacids, the direct precursors of carboxylate carbenes, and have developed several strategies for their synthesis.

We propose that carboxylate carbene precursors can be synthesized via a 3-step carboxylic acid protecting group strategy. Preliminary results indicate success in the THP-protection of the carboxylic acid functional group, a group notable for its resistance to traditional hydroxyl-group protection. Having established a reliable and reproducible method for protection, we can begin to optimize the final two steps of the synthesis. Herein, we report progress on the development, optimization, and scaling of our synthetic strategy.

Megha Arora

Jordan Pellegrino

Emma Kreuz

Marcus Magley

Detection of a 10 mg Dose of Morphine from Poppy Seed Ingestion in Urine Sample by ELISA and Commercial Drug Tests
Sponsored By: Lisa Gentile

It is well-known that poppy seeds contain trace amounts of morphine on their coating. When ingested, this unprocessed morphine does not cause the same physiological effects as the drug, but it still registers on a urine-based drug test. It is not yet known whether, if poppy seeds are consumed in a sufficient quantity, this morphine residue can add up to an amount that would be administered in a morphine pill, which can contain doses ranging from 10-200 mg. We had an experimental subject consume two 45 gram doses of poppy seeds, an amount approximately analogous to a 10 mg morphine dose. The subject collected urine samples both three hours and twenty-four hours after ingesting the second dose. The exact concentration of morphine in the urine was determined using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), by reading the absorbance of a fluorescent enzyme linked to an anti-morphine antibody that bound to the morphine in the urine sample. The urine samples were drug tested using two at-home drug tests, The Home Drug Test and Identify Diagnostics, and a professional grade drug test used by the Pennsylvania Drug Task Force. The results of this experiment will have several implications. It is clear that the consumption of a sufficient quantity of poppy seeds can cause a medically-relevant amount of morphine to be excreted in the urine. We expect this amount to be detected by both the inexpensive at-home drug tests and the professional test. Further, we expect this amount to linger in the body for at least twenty-four hours. For those who frequently consume foods containing poppy seeds, it will be important to moderate their consumption to prevent a false positive drug test. A drug test positive for opioids can have undue implications on employment prospects, athletic eligibility, and criminal status.  

Luc Bitsko

Characterizing introgression between coyotes and wolves using Bayesian analysis of multilocus genotype data
Sponsored By: Vincent Buonaccorsi

The importance of hybridization as a source of genetic variation has gained recognition in recent years. Hybridization between coyote and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote genome that could contribute to the coyote’s geographic range and dietary niche. Previous work examining the extent of introgressive hybridization of wolf into coyote genome used genotype data from ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms to determine population structures of the western coyote, western wolf, and eastern wolf through Bayesian clustering analyses. This data was used in the program STRUCTURE to determine the percent wolf genome within eastern coyotes by assuming a model in which there are 3 populations (western coyote, western wolf, & eastern wolf). Then, genotype data from the eastern coyote (based on single nucleotide polymorphisms) was used to determine the relative contributions of the 3 populations to 190 eastern coyotes from Pennsylvania. Previous results indicate extensive hybridization between both subspecies of wolf and the eastern coyotes, with percent wolf ranging from 13.58% to 51.08%. We report an attempt to repeat this result and optimize the analysis to produce the most accurate assignments. Initial results indicate successful replication (r=0.9996).

Adrian Humboldt

Transition metal complexes with Schiff bases derived from 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde N-oxide and amino acids
Sponsored By: Peter Baran

Biological activities studied on copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes with Schiff bases derived from salicylaldehyde and amino acids proved that these complexes can be effective against cancer, fungi or diabetes. It could be assumed that similar coordination compounds with Schiff bases derived from 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde N-oxide and amino acids possess similar biological activities. Synthesis of such complexes with Cu(II) salts and their crystallographic studies will be presented. In order to synthesize target compounds, a templated synthesis using 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde N-oxide, amino acids, such as b-alanine and 2-glutamic acid, and copper(II) chloride or copper(II) acetate were conducted. Obtained products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy. Structures of complexes were elucidated by X-ray crystalloghraphy after recrystallization of crude products.

Elese Christ

Maria McFarland

Marie-Amélie Ernst

Investigating the link between hormonal contraceptive placebo pills and the increase of blood glucose levels
Sponsored By: Lisa Gentile

In a pack of hormonal contraceptive pills, there is about a weeks worth of pills that are a placebo, meaning they do not contain hormone. The placebo pills are mostly composed of the sugar, sorbitol, which is a reduced form of glucose, as well as a small amount of ferrous fumarate, soybean oil, beeswax, and gelatin. These placebo pill allows the woman to stay on a routine schedule of taking the pill when the menstruation occurs.  Past research shows that the estradiol in hormonal contraceptives is linked to an increase in blood glucose levels.  For this reason, it is recommend that diabetic women do not take hormonal contraceptive pills (https://obgyn.coloradowomenshealth.com/health-info/birth-control/medical-conditions-birth-control/diabetes). In this study, we investigated whether there is a substantial amount of glucose in the Taytulla hormonal contraceptive placebo pill that poses an additional risk for diabetics. Our concentration of glucose in the placebo pill was determined by kinetics. In our study, glucose is oxidized by glucose oxidase, producing hydrogen peroxide. This hydrogen peroxide will then serve as the substrate for  horseradish peroxidase to produce 4-N-(p-benzoquinonimine)-antipyrine. 4-N-(p-benzoquinonimine)-antipyrine, a red colored product, could then be detected by visible light spectroscopy. Using the measured rates, we generated a standard curve of glucose concentration versus rate. The unknown concentration of glucose in our placebo pill was then determined using the trendline of the curve. Although glucose is not a part of these placebo pills, we will expect results that show that some part of the pills serve as a substrate for glucose oxidase.

Olivia Drake

Austin Meyer

Tyler Phillips

An Individualistic Prime Leads to Higher Risk Taking for Gains
Sponsored By: Rebecca Weldon

People tend to be risk-seeking for losses and risk-averse for gains, which is often referred to as the risky-choice framing effect. In this study, participants completed an individualistic or collectivistic framing task before making choices between a sure versus a risky option. We found that higher socioeconomic status participants given an individualistic prime made as many risky choices for gains as for losses. Thinking about oneself versus the group can modulate the traditional framing effect.

Jamey Rondeau

Max Martin-Udry

Peter Rankin

Violence and Education: Media Violence Examining the U.S. Education System Through Galtung's Triangle of Violence
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

Capitalist systems and values are legitimized and perpetuated through the use of media in American Schools through acts of cultural, structural, and direct violence

Mai Vu

Skyler Rebo

Marie Heidler

Synthesis of Tris(phenolate) Ligands and their Corresponding Iron Complexes
Sponsored By: Ursula Williams

One application of inorganic chemistry is the synthesis of molecules that mimic the function of enzymes. Because of this, tripodal iron complexes have recently gained attention. They have been studied for a wide range of applications including as models for the intradiol-cleaving dioxygenase processor as catalysts in reduction processes, like the reduction of nitrogen to ammonia. For iron tris(phenolate) compounds, a particular focus is the using them as catalysts for CO2-reduction, where oxiranes are produced through cycloaddition reactions.

The purpose of this research is to explore and design the synthesis of different tris(phenolate) ligands, then coordinate them with iron to create tripodal iron complexes. To synthesize a family of tris(phenolate) ligands, we have reacted differently functionalized phenols with hexamethylenetetramine using p-toluenesulfonic acid as a catalyst for this reaction. To synthesize metallated complexes, we will react iron(II) acetate with the isolated ligands in the presence of an oxidant and dimethylaminopyridine. Future characterization of the resulting complexes will demonstrate the effects of the ligands on the properties of the metal compounds.

Kaitlyn Granger

National Identity Building in Post-Genocide Rwanda
Sponsored By: Celia Cook-Huffman

Rwanda was on the brink of collapse, as an entire socio-ethnic minority group (Tutsi) was attempted to be wiped out by the majority other (Hutu). During the 100 day genocide, the Tutsi population and Hutu moderates were killed by roving militant groups, their church leaders, their neighbors, and their own family members. This killing was spurred on by state-sponsored propaganda dehumanizing the Tutsis and generating a hatred and fear in the minds of the Hutus. The division of Hutu and Tutsi was polarized for decades before the genocide began. Post-genocide, the country needed to rebuild and reunify, after so much death and destruction. The government of Rwanda, and groups with peacebuilding intent, decided that the way to get to peace is to build up a Rwandan superordinate identity that surpassed the identity of Tutsi or Hutu. Changing from a past of division and violence under ethnic division to a future of unity and growth under the national Rwandan identity.

Lily Smith

An Anti-Hero's Unconventional Narrative
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

Published in 1864, Narrative of the Life of J.D. Green, A Runaway Slave, From Kentucky, Containing an Account of His Three Escapes, in 1839, 1846, and 1848, written by J.D. Green, is a unique 19th-century slave narrative. This narrative is humorous, rebellious, and full of trickery. J.D. Green is not a typical slave, and this narrative is not a typical antebellum slave narrative. Green’s elaborate tricks and self-centeredness causes many problems for both blacks and whites. As the reader, it is hard to feel sympathy for Green because of his actions. His narrative does not follow the rules and expectations of a typical antebellum slave narrative for many reasons, but in the end, his tricks are seen as acts against the system of slavery. Green defies slavery, and his narrative defies the typical structure of slave narratives. Overall, this narrative forces the reader to rethink the ideas surrounding slave narratives. 

Emily Dowler

Species Identification of Salmincola edwardsii and S. californiesis (Gill Lice) through DNA Sequencing
Sponsored By: Vincent Buonaccorsi

Gill lice have spread throughout the US and threaten wild trout populations. Gill lice are parasitic copepods that attach primarily to the gills of fish, though they may also attach to the operculum and fins. The presence of gill lice decreases gas exchange and fish growth, negatively effecting overall fitness. Lice may also compound other environmental stressors (increased water temperatures) on trout populations. Salmincola edwardsii and S. californiesis are two species of gill lice that commonly infect Rainbow Trout and Brook Trout as well as other salmonid species in the US. Characterizing the occurrence of Salmincola edwardsii and S. californiesis in Wisconsin and Pennsylvania will inform decisions about combatting gill lice spread and aid in the conservation of wild trout. Gill lice species identification was determined by comparison of 28S rRNA gene sequences to data from previous phylogenetic studies. PCR was used to amplify the 28S rRNA gene and DNA sequencing was performed. Sequencing results will be used to determine whether PA gill lice are native or originated from recent introductions from another locale. Gill lice phylogenetic lineages will be mapped onto the geographic distribution of gill lice throughout the US and used to describe the origin and spread of gill lice.

Andrew Yeich

Tyler Baer

Quinn Ahrens

Effects of Increased Metabolism on Opioid Alkaloid Detection via ELISA
Sponsored By: Daniel Dries

Opioids are a well-known class of addictive drugs characterized by their ability to relieve pain through action on presynaptic nerves that inhibits neurotransmitter release. Opioid addiction has become a rising problem in the United States, and many employers are now testing their employees. In order to avoid testing positive on these tests, various methods of accelerating drug excretion have been proposed, including copious hydration, commercially available detoxifying agents, and intense exercise. Exercise is known to increase the body’s natural rate of metabolism and thus may also affect drug metabolism. In this study we predict that levels of activity and the rate of drug catabolism are correlated. Due to its high concentrations of opioid alkaloids, poppy seeds were used as a substitute for administering genuine morphine injections. Subjects consumed a detectable amount of poppy seeds at the beginning of the testing period. Urine samples were periodically collected from subjects participating in varying levels of physical activity. Samples were taken from subjects at predetermined intervals during the day. Results were quantified using an ELISA morphine test to generate absorbance values. We expect to observe a decrease in opioid levels with increasing amounts of exercise, suggesting that exercise expedites the body’s metabolism of opioids. Because poppy seeds contain opioids, the findings here can be applied to the class of opioids as a whole. This can help determine if exercise is a viable means of increasing the rate of opioid catabolism and excretion and, therefore, whether current drug testing is vulnerable to false negatives.

Katie Allen

Investigation into the Role of Rusty Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) in the Spread of Largemouth Bass Virus (Ranavirus, Iridoviridae) in Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) within the Juniata River
Sponsored By: Christopher Grant

Largemouth bass virus (Ranavirus, Iridoviridae) is believed to be one of the main causes of the high mortality episodes in young-of-year smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Juniata River since around 2005. This is a relatively new virus and was first discovered in 1995. It is unknown how SMB are being exposed to LMBv, however, it is suspected that their prey may play a large role in SMB infection. This is because LMBv is often spread through consumption of infected prey. This study will collect eighteen pre-mature (less than 3.5cm in length) and eighteen post-mature (more than 3.5cm in length) rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) from eight different sites along the Juniata River. These crayfish will be frozen in liquid nitrogen and will undergo PCR using tissue from their kidneys to determine if they are carriers of LMBv. They will also be aged from a dissection of their ossicles located in their stomach and they will be checked for any visible symptoms of the virus.  

Michael Fox

Synthesis and Characterization of Metallole Nanoparticles
Sponsored By: William Ames

The goal of this project is to synthesize various spherical metallole nanoparticles and study their physical properties to determine their possible applications. Metalloles are cyclic five-member rings, made with four carbon atoms and one of several other possible elements. This classification of molecules includes compounds such as furan, thiophene, pyrrole, and selenophene. These metalloles can be linked together in an aqueous solution using a Cu(II) or Fe(III) salt as a catalyst for the reaction.  Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is used as a templating agent for the spherical nanoparticles. Mixed, layered, and pure metallole nanoparticles made using thiophene, pyrrole, and furan have been synthesized.  Methods to determine the properties of the synthesized nanoparticles includes FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, solubility tests, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. 

Kathryn Slade

Antebellum Hypocrisy
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

William Grimes' slave narrative, Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave, published in 1855, portrays not only his experiences in the slaveholding south, but also experiences in the free north. In doing so, he exposes the south in a similar manner to other narratives. The truly interesting aspect of the narrative emerges in the final third of the narrative. Grimes shows the fear a fugitive slave had to cope with as well as legal struggles caused by false accusations. The north was free, but it allowed for freedom to be snatched from those within it and aside from the Fugitive Slave Law, racism was still rampant in the north.

Elizabeth Migatulski

Sarah Rohrer

Yangsheng Zhou

Omar Zniber

Caitlyn Konradt

Simcon Makeover
Sponsored By: Marlene Burkhardt

As students of the IC version of Project Management, we were assigned a non-technical project at the beginning of the semester. The overarching objective for this client project was to create more online traction for Simcon Solutions. As they are a Texas based company, we are communicating with local community member and Simcon partner Gregory Quinn of Quinn Analytics. Our goals for this project are to create a new front end design for their website, online marketing and advertising strategies, and company rebranding.  

Kaylin Kephart

Isaac Mason and His Life After Escaping Slavery: Struggles Faced in the North
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

Life of Isaac Mason as a Slave is an autobiographical North American slave narrative that was published in Worcester, Massachusetts in 1893. In his narrative, Isaac Mason not only describes the troubles he faced in slavery, but also the hardships he experienced after escaping. While living in the North, Isaac Mason lived in constant fear of the Fugitive Slave Law, struggled to find steady work, and had to deal with inconsiderate treatment from people who claimed to be helping his race. Analyzed will be the fact that life wasn’t easy for a slave, even after they managed to escape slavery.

Owen Baker

Alex Liu

Alicen Moats

Rachel Kim

The impact of diet composition on fasting blood glucose levels
Sponsored By: Lisa Gentile

Blood glucose levels represent the amount of sugar being transported in the blood. The concentration of glucose is dependent on a variety of factors, including diet. This experiment observed how vegan, vegetarian, and keto diets affect the blood glucose levels of individuals compared to an individual following the recommended daily fat, protein, and carbohydrate intake from the United States Department of Agriculture. The national average for fasting blood glucose is a range of 100-125 mg/dL. We observed the catalytic activity of glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase to determine the concentration of glucose in the four individuals. After analyzing the rate of reaction for various concentrations of glucose and calculating the glucose concentrations of the individuals on the four diets, we discovered that individuals on the high-fat, low-carb keto diet had decreased blood glucose levels when compared to the control individual and those on vegetarian and vegan diets. Diet fads such as keto work because low carbohydrate levels cause blood glucose levels to drop, kicking the body into a state of ketosis. During ketosis, the body begins breaking down fat into ketones to use as energy. It is important for individuals following the keto diet to monitor their blood glucose levels because it has been found that they can verge on hypoglycemic, which is a blood sugar level less than 70 mg/dL. It is also important to monitor blood glucose levels to avoid health issues such as ketoacidosis.

Elizabeth Bentz

Jesse Eddinger

Eastern Ground Squirrel Intestinal Parasites: Differences in abundance according to sexes, species, and differing moisture conditions
Sponsored By: Uma Ramakrishnan

Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and Eastern Fox squirrels (S. niger) are both found throughout Eastern North America and are important forest regenerators for an ecosystem. In our prior research, we found Eastern Gray squirrels showed a significant difference in intestinal parasites between males and females. The focus of our current study is to compare the Eastern Gray squirrels and Eastern Fox squirrels to find a reason for this discrepancy. Previously, we concluded some the differences could be from body size, home range, or hormonal differences in males and females. Eastern Fox squirrels are significantly larger than Eastern Gray squirrels. If body size is driving the number of parasites, the fox squirrels should have significantly more parasites than the gray squirrels. If these variations are a result of differences in home range size or testosterone levels, we would find similar sex-based differences in parasite loads. We used male (N=30) and female (N = 30) Gray squirrels and male (N=4) and female (N=5) Fox squirrels that were brought to the Shamokin Mountain Squirrel Tournament in Middleburg, PA. All animals were weighed and measured. We used two different techniques to identify endoparasite loads. This first involved extracting parasite eggs from fecal matter using a flotation technique. The second involved dissection and intestinal washing.

Tyler Seiffert

Briton Hammon: A Slaves Journey at Sea
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

Briton Hammon, on leave from his master, sailed from New England to Jamaica in 1747. He would not return the following spring but would meet his master 14 years later. During these years, Briton goes from the Caribbean, where he encounters the Spanish and Indians, to England where he fights for the Royal Navy against the French. His journey shows the unique perspective of a slave at sea and how different this life was, compared to a slave stuck on a southern plantation.

Larissa Leonard

Overcoming obstacles in slavery by acting out with resistance and resiliency
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

During the 1800s, slavery was a horrific time for slaves because they would be controlled by their master undergoing outrageous hours of work and being punished brutally by not obeying their slaveowners. Mary Prince was one of many slaves who was treated harshly from whippings, kicking, verbal and emotional abuse by multiple of her slave owners. This was a major problem that continued throughout Prince’s life until she acted out with resistant and resiliency to her masters. My poster will consist of many examples of how Prince has shown acts of resistance and resiliency against her master by acting out in rebellious ways. All the acts of resistance and resiliency Prince showed is a pivotal turning point in slavery because she overcame adversity and succeeded.

Ashley Weiand

Return of Reproductive Female Northern Map Turtles (Graptemys geographica) Marked as Hatchlings
Sponsored By: Roy Nagle

Northern Map Turtles (Graptemys geographica) are a long-lived species with a limited distribution in Pennsylvania. The largest known nesting site is located in Mount Union, where, from 2000 to 2008, 535 females were captured and marked, and 645 hatchlings were marked and released into the Juniata River. Almost one-third of all females had abnormally shaped shells, which may have resulted from egg incubation in coal or from direct exposure of sub-adults to contaminants in the Juniata River. During the summers of 2017 and 2018, 11 turtles that were marked as hatchlings returned as 10-18 year old adult females to nest, representing a 3% return rate. Within the returning sample, we observed three pairs of siblings. Statistically, the chance of recapturing three pairs of siblings from a total of 87 clutches released was less than 1%. Also, of the 11 females that returned, three exhibited abnormal carapace shape, only one of which hatched from a nest incubated in coal. Our results suggest that there are substantial differences in fitness among the clutches, and that shell shape abnormalities likely result from direct exposure to contaminants in the Juniata River.

Julia Witkowski

Abby Luensmann

Prayushi Sharma

RNAi Knock Down in C.elegans
Sponsored By: Jason Chan

Survival of cells is crucial to the development of all organisms.  It is known that the sphingolipid metabolic enzymes contribute to this development because the enzymes that balance cellular levels of sphingolipids are part of the yin-yang of cell fate decisions.  Specifically, ceramides promote cell death, but ceramides can be converted to a cell survival factor sphingosine-1-phosphate.  Indeed, sphingolipids are important for the survival of muscle, epithelial, and nervous tissue.  Sphingolipid synthesis de novo is initiated by serine palmitoyl-transferase (SPT), which catalyzes the first step in sphingolipid metabolism that then produces other metabolites such as ceramide, sphingomyelin, and gangliosides.  Recent studies have shown that the accumulation of sphingomyelin and ceramides contributes to slow growth and development, so the purpose of our research was to determine whether SPT contributes to the growth and function of animals, using the model organism C.elegans.  To examine the effects of various mutations in C. elegans, we used RNAi experiments to knock down specific genes, such as the worm ortholog for SPT, sptl-1.  RNAi silences gene expression by destroying the mRNA created by the sptl-1 gene, therefore allowing us to determine how reduced levels of SPT protein affect animals.  From data collected, we found that worms treated with sptl-1 RNAi have a larger body size than control L4440-treated worms, indicating that knockdown of the sptl-1 gene leads to an increased growth in C. elegans.  These findings suggest that there was production of sphingolipids that may increase body growth, leading to overall larger nematodes.  Future experiments will allow us to determine whether  RNAi knockdown of sptl-1 is more effective when used on larval or adult worms based on how the C.elegans respond to various environmental stressors, such as heat or drugs that induce oxidative stress.

Scarlett Clayton

Solomon Bayley: the fight for freedom
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

My poster will be analysing Solomon Bayley's narrative titled 'A Narrative of Some Remarkable Incidents in the life of Solomon Bayley, Formerly a Slave in the State of Delaware, North America'. In this 40-page narrative, Bayley talks about his journey as a fugitive slave and his journey to freedom before he settled down as a missionary worker with his wife and children. Bayley was one of the very small number of slaves who were able to purchase their freeom from their masters. In my poster I will be engaging with three most interesting themes of his narrative; religion, escape and recapture and his fight for freedom. His journey as a runaway slave saw him encounter many dangerous white men as well as the treachery and betrayal from some black men too. His christianity and relationship with God was a recurring theme throughout his text and acts as a vice for him to keep going. In my poster I aim to show and prove how Bayley is thought of as one of the most courageous, strong and influential African American figures drawn from this time peiod. His story of struggle, resistance and need to survive is one of true inspiration. I will explore these themes in order to prove this.

Cameron Livingston

Impacts of Slavery on the Freed Slaves of the South
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

I will be presenting a poster that explores the lives of freed slaves in the south after the Civil War. The poster will center around ex-slave Rev. Mack Lee and his relationship with his master after he was freed. The poster will going into detail on the hardships that came along with being a freed slave, with little economic opportunities. Questioning whether or not some slaves chose to stay with their masters, choosing a guaranteed food supply over being poor and free with little room for growth. 

Katheryn Weeden

Brian Park

Kyle Wyse

Anh Huynh

Nicholas Smith

Bizi Marketplace: Developing Cross-Platform Mobile Application
Sponsored By: William Thomas

Bizi Marketplace is a cross-platform mobile application that will allow students to buy and sell items from their peers within their college campus. This is the product of student research and a student startup within Juniata's Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership (JCEL), which began in 2018. The application is set to have a Fall 2019 release on Juniata College's campus. This semester, we are in the process of developing several critical functionalities: in-app messaging, notifications, search processes, email verification, and syncing data. Our team will design, implement, test, document, and deploy these functions through the use of modern technologies, such as AngularJS, Ionic Framework, and Google Firebase. Upon the development of these functionalities, Bizi Marketplace will be one step closer to being implemented at Juniata as a fully operating application.

Glen Brumm

Biogeochemical development of placer deposit gold in situ: biogenic and geochemical supergene processes
Sponsored By: Ryan Mathur

Gold nuggets found in placer gold deposits are known to originate from hydrothermal Au deposits through erosion and subsequent transportation of gold from the vein source into sedimentary systems. Recent research has suggested an alternate means of secondary formation of placer gold in situ, showing that microbiological processes play a significant role in the mineralization of Au within sedimentary placer deposits. Evidence for the secondary gold mineralization is provided primarily through previous studies involving SEM imaging and chemical analyses of the placer gold. Gold aggregation on nuggets in placer deposits is commenly observed as crystaline or as biologically-derived psuedomorphs in association with microbial films. The aim of this research is to provide insight into the biogeochemical processes that influence placer gold accumulation through isotopic analyses of placer nuggets and correlate these processes to distinct isotopic signatures.

Erik Rasmussen

The Evolution of Native American Sovereignty
Sponsored By: J Barlow

This will be a review in chronological order of the history of relations between the United States and Native Americans.

Erin Brady

Olivia Kruse

Angry Authoritarians: Predicting Anti-Democratic Policy Support
Sponsored By: Philip Dunwoody

Societies under threat typically express a heightened desire for security and social solidarity in a rally effect, unifying the group against potential hazards. However, these reactions can undermine democratic norms in a pluralistic society. Our research examines the effects of emotion, threat, and authoritarianism on general anti-democratic policy preferences and out-group prejudice, finding that a significant positive interaction exists between threat perception and authoritarianism in predicting changes in support for anti-Muslim policies and President Trump hypothetically violating the rule of law.

Anna Pisonova

A Happy Slave: Biases in the Narrative of Mary Anderson
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

The poster puts in context a narrative of a former slave, Mary Anderson, that was conducted as a part of the Federal Writers' Project in 1937. In her account, she describes her life before and after slavery. Unlike the well-known slave narratives that oppose slavery, Ms. Anderson's memory of her life in bondage is full of nostalgia. There are, however, multiple factors that might have influenced her narrative in a way that depicts slavery in a favourable light. The poster identifies and explains these biases, removing the glorifying image of slavery.

Peter D'Amico

Iron Isotopes from Utah and Colorado
Sponsored By: Ryan Mathur

This group examined iron isotopes of various rock formations throughout eastern Utah and western Colorado.  Iron isotope values were calculated in order to track the iron and determine where it went throughout the large-scale geologic events.  One major event was hydrothermal salts staining formations.  These stains made various reds, oranges, purples and white colors thought the rock formations.   This research was also conducted in order to determine if the different colors of formations, indicated how the isotopic values in the iron changed and to examine trends in the chemistry for the suite of samples.

Tori Booher

Life, Including His Escape and Struggle for Liberty of Charles A. Garlick, Born a Slave in Old Virginia, Who secured His Freedom by Running Away from His Master's Farm in 1843
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

I have decided to research the life of Charles A. Garlick and his escape as a slave during the 19th century. Charles was born into slavery near Shinnston, West Virginia, on the plantation of Richard Bogguess in 1827. When he was just sixteen years of age, he made his attempt at freedom. Throughout his journey traveling he met Anson Kirby Garlick who advised him to go to school; Charles attended from 1843 to 1846 where he had many scholarly accomplishments. In the fall of 1847, he went to Oberlin to attend school on the recommendation of Reverend N. T. Chamberlain, of the West Andover Congregational church where he would become one of a class of sixty or seventy African American males in Liberty Hall. My poster will be focused on the education Charles received and how it aided in his success to obtain freedom, as well as, discussing his gratitude for the education he received and how it impacted fellow African Americans throughout their journey to freedom. 

Charles Bein

Game Development in Response to Player Feedback
Sponsored By: Gerald Kruse

One of the most important factors in producing a successful video game is catering to the desires of the players who will play that game. In this study, I have examined the efficiency and effectiveness of involving players in the design process, taking feedback during development to guide design decisions.

Mason Biehn

Condensation Reactions between a Polydentate Amine with a Dialdehyde derived from Pyridine N-oxide
Sponsored By: Peter Baran

Schiff bases are a class of imines that are prepared by condensations of amines with aldehydes or ketones. They are widely used in coordination chemistry as catalysts and some serve as simplified models of the active site in metal-coordinated proteins found in enzymes. The goal of this study is to synthesize and characterize a new Schiff-base ligand (L) via condensation of two equivalents of tridentate Schiff-base (poxpam) with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde N-oxide (loxal).  Poxpam was prepared by the condensation of 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde and loxal by the oxidation of 2,6-dimethylpyridine. Progress on the synthesis of ligand L and its characterization by IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and elemental analysis will be presented together with its complexation reactions with metallic salts.

Grace Lewis

Colton Moyer

Gwynne Domashinski

Desmond O'Donovan

Impact of Environmental Factors, Predators and Patch Size on the Distribution of Allegheny Woodrats
Sponsored By: Uma Ramakrishnan

Allegheny woodrats (Neotoma magister) are a listed species throughout their range. A variety of factors have contributed to this decline, including their dependence on rocky outcrops, competition from porcupines for these sites, habitat fragmentation and predation. The goal of our study was to determine factors that influence the distribution of woodrats, and to use this information to predict woodrat presence in unsurveyed sites. Our study sites included State Game lands 112 and 067. To record the presence of woodrats at each habitat patch, we used camera traps paired with bait tubes filled with suet. To increase our site sample size, we also included data from previous years. We looked at the activity of woodrats in response to presence of predators, competition, time of day and temperature. Woodrats were most active between 8:00-11:00 p.m. and 12:00-3:00 a.m., at a temperature of 17°C to 18°C. We found that the presence of predators was greater at sites with woodrats, indicating that woodrat presence probably drives predator presence. Using a decision tree we found that both patch size and distance between occupied patches could be used to predict the presence of woodrats at each patch. This model can be used to predict woodrat presence in surveyed patches.

Caitlin Binner

Mai Hoang

Omar Zniber

Fashion Merchandizing Marketing Research
Sponsored By: Li Shen

The purpose of this research is to collect information from current Juniata students to gauge the interest of offering a Fashion Merchandising Marketing class. A description of the course is below:

Fashion Merchandising Marketing introduces fashion principles and procedures used in planning, selecting, pricing and selling fashion goods in retail stores, catalogs and on the Internet. Merchandising systems, assortment plans, and inventory control methods will be analyzed. The fashion merchandising foundational integration experiences give students the opportunity to apply the knowledge acquired in the core areas of fashion management. Students will explore macro and micro environmental factors that affect companies in the industry. Students will conduct an industry overview to understand the challenges and opportunities facing this industry by visiting and collecting data from companies operating in the industry in the U.S. and worldwide.

Giana Picozzi

Kayla Parson

Danielle Ochs

Transhumanism - Enhancing a New Identity
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

Technological enhancements of the body and mind cause controversial transformations, creating a post-human identity.

Mai Vu

Regan Myers

Antonio Forte

Using ELISA to Determine Morphine Concentrations in Poppy Seed Tea
Sponsored By: Daniel Dries

Poppy seeds are often used in home cooking. However, these seeds naturally contain morphine, an opioid that can relieve pain and is highly addictive. Since poppy seeds have some trace amount of morphine in their coating, it is common for opiate abusers to purchase unwashed poppy seeds and brew poppy tea in order to attain the same high that morphine provides. Nevertheless, the poppy tea brewing process is imprecise and can lead to unintentional consumption of morphine levels that are of fatal or near-fatal concentration levels. Talbot Recovery and many other health websites have shown that morphine intake becomes fatal near the 200mg mark. In order to test for lethal dosages in poppy tea, we will brew cups of tea with varying amount of poppy seeds. Then, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we will compare the different poppy tea concentrations to a positive control containing the lethal doses of 200mg of morphine in an average teacup. With the use of a standard curve, these experiments will empirically determine the average weight of poppy seeds that are required to reach their near-lethal or lethal morphine concentrations in one cup of tea. In the United States, deaths attributed to opioids have quadrupled since 1999. Opioids account for six out of every ten overdose deaths, indicating that opioid abuse is reaching dangerously high proportions. The results of this project will comment on the validity of the claim that realistic amounts of poppy seeds in one cup of tea can cause overdoses. This will tell us whether cautionary procedures should be implemented to warn opiate abusers toward using unregulated methods, such as the brewing of poppy seed tea, to get high.

Michael Wimer

How to make a mountain: a geochemical exploration of tectonic process in the Blue Ridge Mountains, NC
Sponsored By: Katharine Johanesen

The mountains you see on your drive onto campus did not just begin as beautiful mountains. Just like you, even rocks have a very complex story behind them. Further south in North Carolina, the rocks can reveal deeper processes that helped form the mountains around us. Because Earth’s processes occur in time spans far greater than a human life, we must use the remnants of past orogenies (mountain building events) found in the microstructure of rocks to better understand the magnificent processes of mountain building and continental collision. The Peden area rocks located in the Blue Ridge Mountains display a wide range of minerals, textures, and structures related to different deformation events that took place during and after the three orogenies that formed the East coast of the United States. Studying the microstructures found in the mafic and ultramafic (rocks containing high levels of magnesium and iron) bodies will lead to a better understanding of the impact that orogenies had on the lower crust. A deformation event occurs in response to stresses caused by a tectonic event that change the physical characteristics of the rock. Other changes that happen during metamorphosis are recrystallization and chemical changes. Recrystallization occurs when minerals recrystallize into new minerals in response to changes in temperature and can be graphed on a metamorphic phase diagram. Chemical changes can be caused by the addition of new fluids into the rock introducing new elements into the bulk composition. Evidence of these changes can be seen by looking through a microscope at a thin section of the rock. Some indicators that a rock underwent deformation are: alignment of some of the present minerals different than their surrounding minerals, stretching and shrinking of minerals, and the transition from one mineral to another.

Geochemical and microscopic study of this suite of rocks will reveal the tectonic process that occured deep within the mountain range during its collision with ancient landmasses and, ultimately, Africa to form the supercontinent Pangea. Through a geochemical study of the Peden area rocks, it is possible to define the setting where these rocks formed and identify the rock’s protolith. Metamorphic rocks form by alteration of pre-existing rocks. To acquire geochemical data, samples from the Peden area will be crushed into a fine powder, melted into glass, and put through an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to find bulk composition, which can be compared to mineral assemblages seen in thin section. The samples were also cut into thin section in order to identify minerals through optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Using the geochemical and mineralogical data, I will determine the protolith and metamorphic history of the Peden area rocks. This information will lead to conclusions about the timing of heating and stress during mountain building, shedding light on how plate tectonics works.

Alyssa Fasolo

Networking Through Society to Reunite Families
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

"A Lost Family Found: An Authentic Narrative of Cyrus Branch and His Family, Alias John White" was published in 1869. The narrative tells the unique story of a fugitive slave living free in post-Civil War Vermont named John White (formerly known as Cyrus Branch). After nearly 30 years, White has the unique experience of being reunited with his family when he puts his trust in a fellow town member who is traveling south. By questioning the people in White's old town, the man is able to go through the church to locate White's daughter, who leads him to other long-lost relatives. As in the case of White, churches played an integral role in providing information and chronicling local history. The narrative o f Cyrus Branch, alias John White, demonstrates the importance of social netowrks and the outcomes of putting trust in one's community.

Alyssa Hove

Alexander Lee

Juniata College Web: Photo Uploader Application
Sponsored By: William Thomas

Juniata College currently lacks an efficient and concise way for student workers to upload photos to the Juniata College’s Content Delivery Network. Juniata College employs students of varying technical skill to edit and upload photos to the Juniata website. The current ongoing process for the student workers and marketing team workers is that they are using photoshop to edit photos to send to the network. This process is slow and has multiple steps which prevent untrained users from being able to upload photos. The lack in efficiency causes the workers to spend more time editing, cropping and resizing the photos rather than spending time in a more constructive way. Sponsored by Katheryn Weeden

Brittany Vanvelkinburgh

Nitrate Stream Concentrations During a Snow Melt Event at an Agricultural Versus Forested Site
Sponsored By: Pamela Zilch

Nitrate (NO3-) is an essential nutrient in the environment, when concentrations exceed the federal limit then nitrate becomes an environmental and a human health concern. In this study, the changes of nitrate concentration through a snow melt event are analyzed using stream samples from Standing Stone Creek. Samples from the upstream agricultural area and downstream forested area sites of the creek were assessed by the nitrate ion selective electrode. Analysis of the snow melt event shows that there is a general decrease in nitrate concentrations over time, with concentrations varying from 1.3 to 0.7 mg/L NO3-N. The concentration of nitrate was higher in the agricultural site then in the forested site throughout the snow melting event. These results suggest that both land use and hydrological factors play a role in determining nitrate concentrations in the stream.

Jack Gage

The Juniata Light Show
Sponsored By: Carol Peters

I will be presenting a defintion and explanation of what the Juniata Light Show is and how it is set up. I will define all of the equipment and software and go into detail about how it all works together to create the light show.

Caroline Benfer

Benthic macroinvertebrate assessment as an indicator of endocrine disrupting compounds effecting stream health in the Juniata River basin
Sponsored By: Christopher Grant

            Benthic macroinvertebrates convey the chemical and physical characteristics of a waterbody making them the ideal indicator for stream assessments.  Living in the same small area of a stream for all or most of their lives, macroinvertebrates exhibit any and all environmental stressors that may have occurred during their lifetime.  Their lack of mobility makes them susceptible to pollutants in streams, and the varying tolerance levels of highly sensitive, somewhat sensitive, and pollution tolerant make macroinvertebrates the perfect avenue for testing in streams (The Role of Macroinvertebrates in Stream Ecosystem Function | Annual Review of Entomology).  Hydrophilic contaminants including endocrine disrupting or acutely toxic compounds including agrochemicals like pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides largely associated with the agricultural community are the pollutants of most concern for this project (Kolpin et al.).  With Pennsylvania’s third highest ranking industry being agriculture and Huntingdon counties 11th highest ranking industry including agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting, monitoring the effects of agriculturally based toxins is a high priority.  Endocrine disrupting compounds are entering water and ecosystems on a global scale and have been traced to many chronic abnormalities.  Pennsylvania contributes 40% of the total water into the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and though the bay is seeing its cleanest levels in the past 30 years, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Maryland are responsible for cleaning up 95% of the bay with nitrogen pollution from agriculture runoff being the greatest contaminate (PA and the Chesapeake Bay Watershed | NRCS Pennsylvania).  Small efforts can be made on a local scale to clean water bodies, and macroinvertebrate samples are one of the most reliable methods of assessment. 

Lily Formosa

Mount Union Farmers' Market: Revitalization of the Market and Integration of Fresh Produce in a Food Desert
Sponsored By: Beth Williams

Exploring the impact that farmers' markets have on poor socio-economic individuals in areas of America that have been dubbed as "food deserts," specifically rural communities in Huntingdon County such as Mount Union.  Highlighting my internship at the Center for Community Action and my project with revitalizing the Mount Union Farmers' Market.

Rachel Mignona

Sedimentary facies of the Vintage Formation (Cambrian), eastern PA.
Sponsored By: Matthew Powell

Pennsylvania's Vintage Formation is recorded as being composed of mainly argillaceous dolostone with minor deposits of marble. Despite this formation being a carbonate formation, the presense of limestone is not mentioned. Upon analyizing over 400 feet of Vintage Formation core, not only is limestone present, but also includes unique textures in the facies. The most significant texture, being described as thrombolitic, is one that is shown to be clasts of limestone in a dolostone base. Preliminary data shows that there is in fact a weak association between the thrombolitic texture and carbonate content. 

Jared Feldman

Reactivity of Urushiol with Metallic Salts
Sponsored By: Peter Baran

Poison Ivy and its relatives, Poison Oak and Poison Sumac, are commonly found throughout North America and some parts of Asia. All these plants contain a group of closely related derivatives of catechol, commonly called urushiol, that cause the rash due to the failure of the human immune system. We will be presenting optimization of the extraction method of urushiol from a Japanese lacquer as a source of urushiol. Analysis and reactivity of obtained urushiol fractions with metallic salts will also be discussed.

Julia Freimuth

Marcus Magley

Preparation of Chiral Aziridines Through a Copper-Catalyzed Asymmetric Reduction of 2H-Azirines
Sponsored By: John Unger

Copper hydride-catalyzed reactions have been frequently used for the selective reduction of a variety of carbonyl compounds and activated olefins. The outcomes, such as reaction rates, yields, selectivities, of these reductions are able to be tuned through variations of a ligand attached to the copper metal. A goal of our research is to determine the types of ligands that are able effect the reduction of 2H-azirines to aziridines in high yield and with high stereoselectivity. Our project group has probed 2H-azirine reduction with multiple chiral diphosphine ligand families, such as Segphos, Garphos, and Josiphos, that are typically used in copper-catalyzed carbonyl reduction. However, when applied to the reduction of aryl azirines, these catalyst systems have found limited success. Recently we have started investigating N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) as ligands for the copper-catalyzed reduction of aryl azirines. The syntheses of these chiral NHC ligands and their use in copper catalysis will be reported.

Taylor Vastine

Ian Harpel

Ethan McGee

Giana Picozzi

TIU11 AR Project For I4I
Sponsored By: William Thomas

Tuscarora Intermediate Unit 11 is deploying Raspberry Pi kits across the state as a tool for students to become inspired about electrical engineering and programming.  Along with this growth comes constraints in the classroom and learning processes for students with their new kits. We are buliding an interactive augmented reality environment that will teach students the first step of setting up thier Raspberry Pi kits. The main goal of this project is to develop a starting ground of an environment for students to learn and watch how a Raspberry Pi is connected.

Laura Stepnowski

Mary Boggs

Colin Powers

Nathaniel Ulrich

Jacob Novak

Technological Advancements in a Technological Film Landscape
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

Advancements in film technologies are revolutionizing the industry by transforming our viewing experience, altering the way we think, and blurring the line between fiction and reality.

Jacob Latour

Dolphinfish Research Program: 17 Years of Collaborative Fisheries Science
Sponsored By: Dennis Johnson

The Dolphinfish Research Program (DRP) has become the largest private research program aimed specifically at better understanding the movements, population dynamics, and life history of dolphinfish. Participants in the DRP are present in 25 countries and 43 states and represent the largest volunteer network to describe dolphinfish occurrence and movements.  From 2002 to 2017, at least 1,313 captains, aboard 1,332 vessels, and more than 3,285 fishing mates, participated in the tag and release of over 23,176 dolphinfish around the world (East U.S:, U.S. Caribbean: ; GOM: ).  Of those fish, 582 were recaptured, which amounts to the world’s largest database on individual dolphinfish movements.  In addition, the program deployed 26 satellite tags over this time period to describe dolphinfish habitat utilization and migration routes.  In comparison to other marine offshore tagging programs, the DRP ranks 18th in terms of number of tag deployments.  Currently, efforts are now focused on expanding this network and work into two locations: the Caribbean Sea and southwest Pacific Panama.  Since 2008, 150 participants have tagged and released 742 dolphinfish and deployed 7 satellite and 9 acoustic tags in the U.S. Caribbean Sea, focused largely north of Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands.  These provided detailed accounts on movements in the tropical Atlantic Ocean but left movements within the Caribbean Sea largely unknown.  The program is now focused on expanding data collection within the Caribbean Sea on an individual angler basis in Antigua, Guadeloupe, Barbados, the Cayman Islands, and Belize, with satellite tag deployments focused off southwest Puerto Rico.  In the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP), sporadic tagging activity throughout the region over the history of the program has not led to enough data on movements until the program shifted effort to focus on program expansion to individual fishing lodges.  The first lodge to participate is in southwest Panama, where 52 participants have tagged and released 368 dolphinfish and deployed 1 satellite tag since December 2018.  This effort has led to the recovery of 9 dolphinfish in as little as three months of tagging activity.  In contrast to the ETP, the lack of fishing lodges in the Caribbean Sea means expansion there is reliant on individual angler participation while in the ETP expansion is better focused on fishing lodges.  Using both expansion techniques, the DRP intends to gather new data where information on movements, regional connectivity, and other important life history information remain unknown, information necessary to properly manage and conserve this species for future generations.

Kate Altmanshofer

Products of oxidation of 2,2'-bipyrimidine and their metal complexes
Sponsored By: Peter Baran

Aromatic amine N-oxides have earned their place in recent chemistry research due to their various applications. Pyrimidine N-oxides have current and future applications in pharmaceuticals and technology. 2,2’-Bipyrimidine is a derivative of heterocyclic pyrimidine that has the potential to form N-oxides. Theoretically, there is potential to form a monoxide, two different dioxides, trioxide, or tetraoxide in multiple nitrogen atoms on this molecule are oxidized. A procedure for oxidizing 2,2’-bipyrimidine and analysis of obtained products using techniques such as NMR spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, and IR spectroscopy will be discussed together with attempts to complex obtained products with copper(II) salts.

Aislinn Olthoff

The Illegal Take and Trade of Reptiles in Pennsylvania
Sponsored By: Chuck Yohn

I examined the illegal take and trade in reptiles for the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Data was gathered  from law enforcement agencies to determine how pervasive the illegal take and trade of reptiles is and what species are typically targeted. I also examined the profitability of and conservation implications for the species involved, as well as the conviction rates for each state investigated.

Emma Kreuz

A Clinical and Quantitative Assessment of the FORS Insole, a Novel Shoe-based Offloading System
Sponsored By: Amanda Siglin

Although, the Total Contact Cast (TCC) has been recognized as the “gold standard” for the treatment of plantar diabetic foot ulcers, only a very small minority of clinicians who identify themselves as wound experts (1.7%-6%) use TCCs.1  Our purpose is to present an alternative to TCCs and to evaluate the effectiveness of the FORSTM-15 Off-Loading Insole device in a patient-based series of diabetic foot ulcers. We also discuss how the use of the FORSTM-15 insole may reduce ulcer recurrence while transitioning patients from the TCC to their final footwear. Patients were selected based on previous non-compliance, contraindication to TCC, or failure of other off-loading modalities.  Also, the FORSTM-15 was implemented in patients transitioning out of TCC until full recovery. While not a specific requirement for selection, many patients had chronic wounds of minimum one month to one year or longer that had failed to heal using other offloading methods. FORSTM-15 insoles were customized by removing plugs from the bottom of the insole that corresponds to ulcer location, then inserting the insole into a surgical rocker-bottom inlay shoe provided to the patient. Wound dimensions were recorded and photographed with each visit to the wound clinic. Average pressure reduction provided by the FORSTM-15 insole was also quantitatively assessed and analyzed via F-Scan™ in-shoe dynamic pressure measuring system by comparing plantar pressures with simulated ulcers in standard surgical rocker-bottom inlay shoes that included the standard inlay versus shoes where the standard inlay was removed and replaced with the FORSTM-15 insole.  In four independent trial sites (3- U.S., 1- Italy) patients using FORSTM-15 insoles consistently demonstrated a high level of compliance with the device, and ulcer healing rates appeared comparable to those produced by TCC.  Patients rated FORSTM-15 insole as more comfortable and convenient than other offloading modalities. Features of the FORSTM-15 include an Alcantara® top cover that minimizes shear forces/slippage and absorbs moisture, a polyurethane foam construction providing durable cushioning and shock absorbance, and a fabric mid-layer minimizing collapse and "edge effects”. In total,  >30 patients with plantar ulcers were treated using the FORS insole for offloading as part of the four independent evaluations. Wound closure was achieved in 100% of patients at Montefiore Mount Vernon Hospital in an average of 9.6 weeks. Similarly, positive results were observed at UPMC Altoona, TUSPM, and PATDFRC with compliant patients; though non-compliant patients were included in the evaluation.

Fisher Stroud

Jenny Cheng

Jill Palmer

Horror Games: Immersion That Shapes Identity
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

To create a cohesive and immersive horror experience, game developers must first understand what about horror is so horrifying. Horror functions on the unknown, and specifically in video games, feeling underpowered, and unprepared for what the player is about to be confronted with. Modern horror games are shaping our identity through new technologies which help to create a unique immersive gaming experience. 

Philip Harney

The point of Isotopes
Sponsored By: Ryan Mathur

This poster describes the chemical compounds within the chert rocks used by native americans to make projectile points. Not only does this reveal the prescense of things such as iron istopes in the chert, but it also shows the native americans made use of these stones. This can be proven by the series of test performed that you see in this poster.

Alyssa Fasolo

Karis Cornelius

Jenna Miller

Nik Iacovelli

Ziyuan Hong

HCVB: Fireplace Getaways
Sponsored By: Marlene Burkhardt

Our Juniata College I4I team is working with the Huntingdon County Visitors Bureau to make progress towards increasing tourism in Huntingdon County during the winter months. Currently, the vast majority of visitors to the area come during the summer. What most visitors do not realize is that there is much to do in Huntingdon County during the winter, and the scenery is always phenomenal. We hope to compile research about the customers who frequent the area by talking to local business owners. We also hope to create a “winter bucket list” of attractions available to visitors during the colder months. We will be obtaining new photography and creating a short highlight video that showcase the beauty of Huntingdon County in the winter as well. With the knowledge that most visitors return within a few years of their first visit, we hope to market Huntingdon County as a true “four season destination” that families will return to during all months of the year.

Eli Greenblatt

Andrew Yeich

Total Synthesis of Pulvinic Acid and Characterization of its Transistion Metal Ion Complexes
Sponsored By: Peter Baran

Pulvinic acid is a pigment found in many mushrooms such as Scelroderma citrinum (The Common Earthball) and Chalciporus piperatus (Peppery Bolete). Pulvinic acid and its precursor vulpinic acid are thought to possess both antimicrobial and antioxidant properties; however, their further chemical interactions are unknown. Due to its prohibitive cost, pulvinic acid was synthesized beginning with the y-lactone tetronic acid. Said tetronic acid was used to synthesize vulpinic acid, the immediate precursor to pulvinic  acid. Upon completion of the synthesis, possible transition metal ion complexes with pulvinic acid will be investigated.

Maria Greenler

Dain Shirmer

Establishing a General Method for the Copper-Catalyzed Asymmetric Reduction of 2H-Azirines
Sponsored By: John Unger

Over the past 30 years, catalytic copper hydride has emerged as an efficient reducing agent that effects the reduction of activated olefins, carbonyl groups, and imines, and can serve to drive tandem, multi-bond formation processes. When coordinated to non-racemic chiral ligands, copper hydride can effectively impart asymmetry onto a reaction product. Inspired by previous efforts to reduce C–N double bonds, we see the potential to produce chiral aziridines through the copper-catalyzed reduction of prochiral 2H-azirines. Previous research from our group explored the development and optimization of an asymmetric reduction of aryl 2H-azirines. We investigated several ligand families a small spectrum of reaction conditions that led to only moderate yields and enantioselectivities. Current efforts test a broader library of ligands and ligand families, and probe a wider range of reaction conditions for the purpose of improving reduction results. We are also developing a synthesis of alkyl 2H-azirines that will allow us to expand our substrate scope and develop a more general reduction method. We will review the history of the project and report on the progress of recent initiatives.

Junyi Liu

Dahongliutan Fe-ore deposit in the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, Xinjiang, northwestern China
Sponsored By: Ryan Mathur

The hematite rich Fe deposit in Western Kunlun orogenic belt, Xinjiang, China contains more than 35wt percent Fe is used to extract iron. The study of the deposit has academic value and economic value.

The methods include lithostratigraphy, analysis of ore-controlling structure, thin sections under microscope, zircon studies for dating ages.

The Dahongliutan Fe deposit is mainly hosted within the Neo- proterozoic Tianshuihai Group neritic siliciclastic–carbonate rocks subjected to greenschist-facies metamorphism. Mineral assemblage contains hematite, siderite, limonite, quartz, dolomite, ankerite, calcite, muscovite and chloritoid. Banded and massive structures dominate the Fe ores, which generally show lepidoblastic, crystalloblastic and blastopsammitic textures. We have divided the ores into four types, namely: (1) Quartz–hematite; (2) Quartz–dolomite–calcite–muscovite–hematite; (3) Quartz– ankerite–hematite; (4) Quartz–siderite–hematite. ?

Zircon U–Pb analyses on the marbles and schists yielded a Neoproterozoic age (Ediacaran; 593 ± 7 Ma), ?The 163 detrital zircon ages from marbles and schists define five major age populations. Comparing the Dahongliutan Fe deposit with typical BIF depos- its in the world, we infer that the deposit belongs to Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) BIF-related sedimentary metamorphic type iron deposit and appears similar to Superior-type BIF, probably reflecting the recurrence of anoxic ferruginous conditions in the Neoproterozoic–Early Cambrian deep sea.

Carrie McGlohon

Kaitlyn Thomas

Victoria Taylor

Joanna Shin

A. Tausey Wolfe

Amber Blue

Athletes vs Non-Athletes: Perceptions of Academic and Social Lives in College
Sponsored By: J. McKellop

In-group bias is common and likely has roots in our evolutionary past. This bias can occur in all kinds of groups, take multiple forms, and is driven by various motives. However, at its most basic level, the bias leads to broad, generalized positive ratings of the in-group and stereotypical/negative ratings of out-groups. On a small college campus, one easily differentiated pair of groups is athletes and non-athletes. Athletes can often easily be identified by their images on institutionally developed promotional materials, their wearing of team attire, and the athletic gear that they carry to classes (e.g., field hockey sticks or softball bats). Previous research shows that in-group/out-group biases are often stronger for stable, high-status groups like college athletes, club members, and individuals in sororities/fraternities. The current study evaluates athlete’s and non-athlete’s perceptions of the opposing group. In addition, the study aims to understand the impact of being a college athlete on academic performance and campus social life, as compared to non-athletes, at a small liberal arts college. Students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of in-group and out-group experiences in the academic and non-academic domains at Juniata. We had several hypotheses. First, athletes will have more negative academic impacts (e.g., more days of missed class) than non-athletes. Second, athletes will have more social connections than non-athletes (due to their built-in team/social network). Third, non-athletes will report more free time to spend with friends or work on-campus/off-campus jobs as compared to athletes. Fourth, students who spend more time with  their in-group (e.g., athletes socializing exclusively with other athletes) will report less favorable perceptions of out-group members.

Cade Emlet

Joshua Brycki

Transcrimptomic data reveals upregulated genes in gut microbiota of long-lived C. elegans hosts
Sponsored By: Jason Chan

Intestinal bacteria establish symbioses within hosts which can be commensal, pathogenic, or mutualistic depending on the type of bacteria and host’s genetic background. The evolutionarily conserved IIS pathway in C. elegans has direct interaction with bacterial colonizers by integrating insulin and insulin-like signaling (IIS) molecules of the intestine into metabolic and behavioral responses. We sought to understand the relationships between aging, the IIS pathway, and microbial stressors in the gut by performing bacterial transcriptomics on three IIS pathway mutant type worms: daf-2 IIS upregulated, daf-16 IIS downregulated, and N2 wild type. Each were fed a diet of E. coli OP50. Interestingly, microbial genes that deal with oxidative stress response were differentially expressed between bacteria in different experimental groups. Specifically, peroxiredoxin (prdx-2) and glutaredoxin genes were enriched in E. coli fed to daf-2 whereas thioredoxin reductase genes were enriched in the E. coli of daf-16. We hypothesize that these microbial expressed genes are responding to different conditions of host C. elegans to maintain homeostatic conditions in the gut. We tested this hypothesis by inhibiting the oxidative stress resistance genes in the bacteria and observint the effect this had on bacterial colonization of the gut. Transcriptomic data has also revealed that genes pertaining to the thiamine salvage pathway are also enriched in bacteria found within daf-2 mutants. This pathway generates TPP (vitamin B1), a molecule that C. elegans must acquire for survival through their diet. Uptake of TPP from a bacterial diet plays a fundamental role in energy metabolism and has been shown to increase lifespan of the host, but it is unknown what effect this would have on already long-lived daf-2 worms. To test what effects thiamine salvage pathway activity in gut bacteria have on long-lived host life history traits, we will assess brood sizes and lifespan in N2, daf-2, and daf-16 (short-lived worms). We hypothesize that worms will live longer and healthier in general when exposed to a TPP-laden diet. Additionally, since TPP enhances energy metabolism, which generates free radicals as a by-product, there may be a connection between thiamine metabolism and the IIS pathway, where daf-16 acts as the transcription factor for superoxide dismutase-3 (sod-3), an enzyme which converts superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. While it was previously known the IIS pathway has an impact on the microbiome, our transcriptomic data unveils these impacts on a molecular level and informs us on the mechanism by which the IIS pathway and aging interact with bacteria and the ecological interactions in the intestine important for organismal level homeostasis and lifespan.

Owen Gallagher

Dale Cutshall

Koki Omori

Will Thurston-Griswold

Nathaniel Matthews

KCF Technologies i4i Poster
Sponsored By: William Thomas

Our project is to provide an employee directory for KCF Technologies. The current system they have is in PowerPoint, which is hard to access and not up to date. It is also currently being maintained by only one person. Our updated application will transfer the responsibility of the data to each user and reduce the work that this person has to do.This issue is compounded by the fact that KCF is rapidly growing. KCF used to be a small company but they are expanding into an additional office and hiring many new people. This has caused them to start to lose the feeling of being a small office. KCF hopes to retain the feeling of being a small company through the development of a web directory.

Ryan Davis

The Legend of Moses Dickson and the Order of 12
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

For my slave narrative I will be talking about Moses Dickson and the Knights of the Liberty and the work that they did during and after the abolition of slavery. Dickson and the Knights played a major role in the getting slaves to freedom and helping to establish a system to support the newly freed people of color once slavery had ended. The men who worked to advance the ideals of this organization were courageous and were pioneers in the step to racial equality for all people of color. For this narrative I would like to bring attention to how Dickson was important blacks in the antebellum South US, but mostly to how Dickson played an even bigger role in the advancement of people of color in the postbellum South with the creation of The International Order of Twelve, of Knights and Daughters of Tabor in honor of the Knights and all their hard work.

Abby Nevill

Language and Literacy Skill Knowledge for Effective Reading Instruction
Sponsored By: Kathryn Westcott

This study examined preservice teachers’ knowledge of language constructs related to reading.  Outcomes provide information regarding effective practices for assessing teacher knowledge about evidence-based components of reading pedagogy.  It also provides information on the effectiveness of a course designed to improve preservice instructional knowledge in these areas.  With school psychologists serving as consultants for instruction and intervention, understanding effective practices that support implementation of research-based reading instruction is critical for improving reading instruction.

Erin May

Crayfish Gut Microbiome Analysis
Sponsored By: Regina Lamendella

Crayfish are vital to stream ecosystems often living on detritus and decomposing tissues. The presence of crayfish is often a sign of a healthy stream system as they are unable to tolerate polluted water. Similarly, microorganisms are vital to the proper function of the gut. Using fecal samples from the intestinal tract of crayfish from four sites in central Pennsylvania, this study aims to show that there are significant differences in the gut microbiomes of  crayfish from different locations. A total of 39 crayfish had fecal samples taken with four additional (controls, one per site). Of the 39 samples 23 were used for DNA extraction, and of the 23 extraction samples 13 successfully went through PCR and were used for shotgun genome analysis. From this it was determined that location does play a role in the microbiota present in the gut of all three species of crayfish, as there was very little similarity between each location.

Lucas Bitsko

Jordan Pellegrino

Making the Precursors to ß-Heteroatom-Stabilized Carbenes
Sponsored By: John Unger

Carbenes are unique reactive intermediates that are useful in organic synthesis. With only two bonding partners and two free electrons, these low-valent carbon species are often highly reactive, and can be ambiphilic in the singlet state, possessing the ability to behave as both nucleophiles and electrophiles. β-Heteroatom-stabilized carbenes are a class of carbene that has gone largely unutilized. Their reactivity is defined by an anionic β-heteroatom that interacts with the carbene center, and influences the carbene reactivity. Only carboxylate carbenes have been previously studied, but their use in synthesis has not yet been realized. Predicted to exist in the singlet state, β-heteroatom-stabilized carbenes are unique among other carbonyl carbenes for their nucleophilicity. We envision that this unique reactivity can be used for synthetic gain and are exploring several strategies to both α-diazoamides and α-diazoacids, the precursor to amidate and carboxylate carbenes. We will discuss these strategies and report on obstacles we have encountered. We will also detail a hydrazone oxidation study we have undertaken in an effort to obtain α-diazoacids