Zachary Adams
Environmental Science

Relationship of Invasive Berry Producing Plants on Bird Communities and an Assessment of Observer Bias on Avian Transect Studies
Sponsored By: Chuck Yohn

In continuation with the 2014 and 2015 studies, I compared avian feeding guild structure between two wetlands with differing abundances of invasive berry producing plants in Huntingdon County, PA in the fall of 2016. Few to no invasive berry producing plants were found at one wetland (Old Crow wetlands; Huntingdon, PA), while high numbers of invasive berry producing plants such as Autumn Olive (Eleaegnas umbellatum) were found at the second wetland (Fouse's Crossing; Marklesburg, PA). In the 2014 and 2015 study, two transects at each of the two wetlands were surveyed for birds six times in the fall, by one observer. In 2016 both locations were surveyed for birds under the same parameters, but with the addition of adding a second observer. Both observers recorded birds along both transects sequentially. Vegetation was sampled at both locations multiple times throughout the fall and abundance, richness, and berry abundance of all berry producing plants was recorded. Avian average abundance, density, and conservation scores were calculated at each site. We compared the first and second observations at each transect per day to evaluate observer differences and the impact of disturbance. Both the 2015 and 2016 studies did not differ between the wetlands in average abundance, density, and richness in bird communities (Bird Density p=0.32, Fall 2016) but overall differed dramatically from the 2014 study. Short term data sets are often inadequate to address some research questions. Observer bias, particularly related to low detectability bird species and disturbance, could have possible impacts on study results.

Catherine Adcock
Comparative Literature and Language

A Spot of Tea: A Look at Various Tea Ceremonies in Different Cultures
Sponsored By: Douglas Stiffler

This presentation will aim to inform about tea culture across the world by focusing on three cultures the presenter has experience and emphasis in. By looking at the traditional tea ceremony of Japan (chanoyu) that focuses on an experience that occurs once, the traditional British/European tea ceremony that is steeped in tradition and following the same format and finally the Latin-american tea ceremony of Mate and the importance in South American culture. The history and classifications of tea will also be discussed as well as how the tea used in the three ceremonies are similar and different. Hopefully, time permitting, the presentation will also include a demonstration of the three tea types.

Blair Altland
Computer Science

StatistiCal: Developing an iPhone Application Based on Three Years of Life Data Analysis
Sponsored By: Gerald Kruse

Recent advancements in personal computing have allowed for an unprecidented ability to collect data in our lives. Insights can be drawn from the number of steps we take, the calories we burn and consume, the time we spend online and even our overall mood. By analyzing nearly three years of personal data collection, an iPhone application was developed to get the most out of this data.

Casey Anthony
Early Childhood and Special Education

Bilingualism, Spanglish, and the Phenomenon of Code-Switching
Sponsored By: Kathleen Biddle

The linguistic phenomenon of code-switching, or the switching between a speaker's two languages in discourse, has emerged on the frontier of the last decade of bilingualism research. Controversy exists as to the benefits, drawbacks, and purpose of code-switching. Education researchers attempting to resolve this controversy often study the relationship between code-switching, fluency, and proficiency in a target language. In order to understand the relationship between these three elements, researchers must first understand and study the factors at work in a code-switching and how the interplay of those factors creates a code-switch. This study examines factors in code-switching by analyzing transcribed English interviews with young adult multilingual learners of English from a small city in northeastern Spain. Three factors were chosen to analyze code-switching in the samples: the place in a sentence where the switch occurs, the part of speech for which a speaker switches, and the communicative purpose of the switch. Correlations between these factors as well as additional data on speaker self-reported proficiency provide a foundational understanding of possible patterns in the what, when, and why of code-switching. As research in code-switching is relatively new and understudied, this pilot investigation provides methodology and general trends that can be replicated with a larger study.

Adam Anthony
Physics and Math

Examining quantum algorithms on a simulated quantum computer
Sponsored By: Matthew Beaky

A quantum computer offers the potential to outperform classical computers in problems like factoring large numbers, or search algorithms. Specifically a quantum factoring algorithm runs in polynomial time, while the most efficient classical algorithm operates in sub-exponential time. Unlike classical computer bits, which can only be in one of two states, 0 or 1, quantum bits (qbits) can exist in more than one state simultaneously. It is this ability to exist in a superposition of states that quantum algorithms exploit. We examine quantum algorithms, such as Grover’s search algorithm and Shor’s factoring algorithm, on a simulated system of N qbits.

Adam Anthony
Physics and Math

Fairness of skewed dice
Sponsored By: Kimberly Roth

Dice are a staple in tabletop games, injecting an element of randomness. We intuitively believe that a cube or dodecahedron are fair dice, and near as makes no difference, our intuition is validated. The fairness of a die can be tested by treating it as a random number generator and testing the sequence of rolls for randomness. This is done using established tests for randomness, such as Marsaglia's diehard tests. We will present results from testing the fairness of a skewed 12 sided die.

Megha Arora
Population Health Sciences

La Arquitectura de Santiago Calatrava
Sponsored By: Henry Thurston-Griswold

Santiago Calatrava is a contemporary Spanish architect, whose buildings mark the cityscapes of Spain, as well as numerous international locations, including Milwaukee and New York City in the United States. His work is unique, which presents as both a gift and a curse: there has been significant controversy surrounding Calatrava's designs, budgets, and project timelines. My research explores Calatrava's social perception and impact, while placing his work in the historical and cultural contexts of both Spain and the United States. 



*Presentation will be given in Spanish 

Madeline Bennetti
Psychology

Female sexual fluidity and gaze on nude images
Sponsored By: David Widman

Research has found that females are more sexually fluid than males, meaning that they are more likely to engage in bisexual thoughts and behaviors. It follows that women would look at sexual parts of both males and females more than males. The present study compares survey data of sexual fluidity to gaze patterns on nude images of both male and female forms. Participants completed a detailed survey about their sexual behaviors and feelings with regard to people of different sexes and gender identities. Then, their gaze was tracked as they viewed fully nude images of males and females. We expect that females whose survey responses suggest high sexual fluidity will spend more time looking at the breasts and genitalia of female images, similar to patterns seen in the male controls, in addition to their time spent looking at the genitalia of male images. 

Chelsea Biefeld
Biochemistry

Analysis of Differentially-Expressed Genes in a Gamma-Secretase Conditional Knockout Mouse
Sponsored By: Daniel Dries
Presenting with:
  • Harvey, Amanda

gamma-secretase is an intramembrane protease involved in Alzheimer's disease and neurodevelopment. Here, a conditional knockout mouse was made in which a component of the gamma-secretase complex (Nicastrin) was deleted from oligodendrocytes. These mice displayed schizophrenia- and compulsive-like phenotypes. In order to identify genes and pathways that elicit these phenotypes, RNA-Seq was used to perform transcriptome analysis. A bioinformatics pipeline was created to process this data and search for differentially expressed genes within the conditional knockout mice. Gene ontology programs were used to evaluate the genes and identify biological processes and functions that may play a role in the behavioral aspects of these mice.

Alexander Bischer
Wildlife Conservation

Peace Chapel Bioblitz 2017
Sponsored By: Uma Ramakrishnan
Presenting with:
  • Johnson, Emma

The goal of this project is to plan a Bioblitz at the Baker-Henry Nature Preserve, which encompasses the Juniata College Peace Chapel. A bioblitz is a 24 hour rapid survey of the flora and fauna in a specific area. These events allows researchers to quickly gain a general understanding of the biotic makeup of an area as well provide a unique opportunity to involve and educate the local community about the natural world. The Baker-Henry Nature Preserve is 315 acres and composed of mainly forest and shale-shrub lands with a few seasonal streams running through it. We hope to sample small mammals, native plants/trees, invasive plants, reptiles/amphibians, birds, and insects. We have identified experts who will help design the sampling technique and lead the sampling effort. The experts will work with current Juniata College students, alumni, community members and students from Huntingdon Area School District. The data collected will be used to calculate biodiversity indices, and will serve as baseline data for future sampling efforts at the Baker-Henry Nature Preserve.

Ryan Bologa
Social Studies Secondary Education

Sparks Farm: An Environmental, Social, and Cultural History
Sponsored By: James Tuten

Juniata College recently received a large gift, a 378-acre farm located in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. This presentation analyzes the changes that took place on the Sparks Farm over a 220-year period, in the context of regional and national factors. Factors such as World War II, iron furnaces, and changes in farm technology and equipment have shaped farm activities over its existence. The expansion of the farm to include a summer camp for children widened its uses outside just agriculture. The farm would be used to educate youth on different environmental factors and skills. Agricultural census manuscripts, historic newspapers, oral history interviews and aerial photos show that the Sparks Farm had much in common with neighboring farms in terms of land and water use.

Jeffrey Brabec
Biochemistry

A Very Unnatural Selection: The Dangerous Path of Gene Editing
Sponsored By: Kathleen Jones

As medical technology continues to advance, many innovations once considered science fiction are rapidly becoming science fact. The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system is by far one of the most amazing scientific developments of the last decade, but it is also one of the most controversial. With the advent of gene editing technology, scientists are faced with the moral dilemma of how to use CRISPR and what to use it on. The technology has many positive applications such as eradicating debilitating genetic diseases or helping with the fight against cancer. Yet, the inaccuracies in its edits and the possibility of those edits being passed on to offspring suggest that the technology may be too dangerous for human use. CRISPR has the potential to do so much for humanity but it also has the potential to cause more harm than good. At this stage, CRISPR is not safe for human use and much more research needs to be done on its mechanisms before it can ever be considered safe.

Lauren Brandenburg
Environmental Science

The United States and Offshore Oil Drilling: The Controversy
Sponsored By: Kathleen Jones

The growth of offshore oil production has spurred political debate over which American shores should be open for business with oil companies, if any. Understanding the risks and benefits that offshore operations offer has become an increasingly important topic when it comes to dealing with the United States' energy demands. Environmentalists argue that we should move away from oil to more sustainable energy sources due to the ongoing evidence of climate change and the negative impacts that offshore drilling can have on the environment and economy. Others argue that economic benefit, job creation, and energy independence from oil-rich, foreign nations are benefits that far outweigh any environmental damage that could occur. This study will examine the negative long term ecological, economic, and societal damages that offshore drilling incurs on the United States and recent political shifts in its allowance.

Emily Brownholtz
Political & Cultural Studies

Social Conservatism in Practice and Policy: HIV/AIDS in America
Sponsored By: J Barlow

The purpose of this presentation is to uncover how social conservatism in politics and policy affects communities and individuals negatively. Social conservatism is a political ideology that focuses on the preservation of what are seen as traditional values, and often manifests as opposition to same-sex marriage, abortion, and comprehensive sex education. This investigation consists of case studies that involve socially conservative policy in practice and HIV/AIDS. The research explores the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s and Ronald Reagan’s inaction in the face of an LGBT healthcare crisis, Indiana’s Planned Parenthood budget cuts that stemmed from religious ideology and led to an HIV outbreak, and how socially conservative sex education techniques cause higher rates of HIV, teenage pregnancy, and abortion. This research in its entirety reveals the negative effects of social conservatism in practice, and concludes that socially conservative ideologies can have no place in the politics and policies of an inclusive, healthy, and strong America.

Shannon Brumbaugh
Biology and Spanish/ Hispanic Cultures

Tango "Chorra" Enrique Santos Discépolo
Sponsored By: Amy Frazier-Yoder

Este trabajo analizará el contexto y letra del tango “Chorra” por Enrique Santos Discépolo. Aunque había diferentes cantantes que interpretaban este tango a lo largo de los años, la letra y la música fueron escritos por Discépolo. Algunos de los cantantes incluyen al muy conocido Carlos Gardel, Julio Martel y otros ("Enrique Santos Discépolo"). Discépolo compuso la canción en 1928 por una obra de teatro ("Tango Chorra").



Esta canción pertenece a la llamada “segunda etapa de tangos”, según la clasificación de David William Foster. La primera etapa consistió de canciones muy sexuales y vulgares. Durante la segunda etapa, el tango salió de sus orígenes en los burdeles y empezó a ganar popularidad en la sociedad alta (Foster 9). Para tener éxito en la sociedad alta los tangos tuvieron que realizar una transformación extrema, una higienización de la letra.



La letra de “Chorra” es más “limpia” que la letra de tangos de la primera etapa, pero todavía habla de una mujer que es mala desde el punto de vista del yo poético. El tema de la mujer malévola, o la femme fatal, era común en muchas otras canciones de tango durante esa época. Según el diccionario lunfardo, “Chorra” significa una ladrona o una mujer que roba a otras personas. En este tango la chorra y sus padres robaron del yo poético y por eso él estaba enojado y básicamente pensaba que todas las mujeres eran malas.

Andrew Burlingame
History and Politics

The Roots and Effects of Conservatism in Central Pennsylvania
Sponsored By: J Barlow

Central Pennsylvania, specifically the Juniata Valley region of the state, is a hotbed of political conservatism. The state of Pennsylvania has often been referred to as, "Pittsburgh in the west, Philadelphia in the east, and Alabama in the middle." This paper examines the history of the counties of Blair, Bedford, Fulton, and Huntingdon, all part of the Juniata Valley, through the scope of four eras of development. The four periods include: settlement and pre-industrialization (1750-1840), industrialization (1840-1920), deindustrialization (1920-1970), and post-industrialization (1970-present). The paper builds upon the work of Tim Blessing, d. The Development of a Dysfunctional Society: The Systems of Pennsylvania's Juanita Valley, 1740-1985, and incorporates census data, local newspapers, election data, interviews, and polling data from sources such as Gallup Poll and the Pew Research Center. While Blessing's dissertation argues that the conservative nature of the Juniata Valley has caused the region to become a dysfunctional society, my paper argues for a less negative perspective. Rather, I argue that while there was great change in the region in terms of population, religious affiliation, development, economy, and even political affiliation throughout the four eras of the region, the Juniata Valley maintained its conservative nature that has been present since its beginnings. Even as many other features of the region have changed or evolved, conservatism has remained the greatest constant.

Kevin Butterfield
Politics

Partisanship In America
Sponsored By: J Barlow

Partisanship is a factor that has played a central role to how American Politics has been conducted throughout history. From the country’s founding to the civil war, to modern times opposing political parties have tried to shape the country to their ideals. This process of polarization has become more prevalent in modern society, culminating in the current administration of Donald Trump—a president whose campaign thrived off the climate of increased partisanship that the United States is now facing. This paper and presentation will seek to examine this phenomenon by comparing statistics, historical context, and other data in an effort to explore the progression of partisanship in the United States up until the modern-day. This will show that while partisanship is not a new problem it is still just as relevant today as it has been in the past.

Martha Carpenter
English

Rogues, Rovers, and Rakish Women
Sponsored By: Peter Goldstein

My LAS presentation will focus on Restoration Comedy, specifically Aphra Behn's The Rover. In order to fully address the historical and social elements of the play, it is necessary to discuss Aphra Behn's life in some detail. The history surrounding Behn's life will reveal aspects about Restoration England, feminism, and comedy.

There will be some comparative discussion of Wycherley's The Country Wife and Etherege's The Man of Mode, in order to better clarify the role of women in Restoration comedies. By better understanding the roles of women in both Restoration society and Restoration comedy, I hope to discuss the concept of "the feminine rake" within this specific historical context. Despite women's autonomous decision making about their sexual lives they are not on social par with men. For example, the men of these plays are often referred to as rakes, rogues, wits, or cavaliers. Women consequently can be considered coquettish but they must ultimately act as counters to roguishness. It is my hope that by studying The Rover and the other two comedies in greater depth that I will be able to better articulate the difference between rakes, and coquettes and the inherent sexism of male verses female sexual roles.

Although Aphra Behn was a prominent figure, and a prolific writer during her time, much of her work was snubbed as plagiarism during her time and even now. I believe that her writing contains elements of her struggles as a woman, as a writer, and as a human being during the Restoration. By analyzing her most prominent play I hope to discuss her work not just as a piece written by a woman, but as a piece written by a thoughtful person who demanded equal playing time.

Kerry Casey
Chemistry

Synthesis and Characterization of an Iron Complex of a Tripodal Aryloxide Ligand
Sponsored By: Ursula Williams

Tripodal iron coordination compounds have been studied as model complexes for biological and industrial catalytic processes including small molecule activation reactions. As part of a larger study considering the impact of ligand identity on the redox properties of iron coordination complexes, we set out to synthesize a complex in the amine triphenolate ligand environment tris(2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylbenzyl)amine ((ArMeO)3N). This report will discuss the synthesis of (ArMeO)3NFe(DMAP) (DMAP = dimethylaminopyridine). The structure of this complex has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and its properties have been analyzed spectroscopically and electrochemically. 

Madison Caso
History and Literary Studies

The British Amazon: The Boudican Legacy in Literature
Sponsored By: Belle Tuten

In AD 60 Boudica, a Briton warrior queen, led a rebellion against the Roman soldiers stationed in Britannia.  While her revolt was defeated, Boudica’s legacy has lived on in literature written about her, including two sources of Roman origin.  The body of literature written between AD 100 and 1754 has sought to accomplish three things: the works feminize Boudica, in ways that both give and take away some of her power; they masculinize her story, and thereby masculinize early British history; and they comment on the burgeoning imperialist agendas in the Roman and British Empires. Over the past two millennia, this set of literature has worked to establish Boudica as an enduring national icon in Britain.  I argue that these three themes are present in the works of literature, as ideas about Boudica are slow to change over time.  It is valuable to study these works of literature as a complete set because each successive works builds upon previous literature.  For the purposes of this presentation, I will be discussing only two of my sources: "The Annals" by Tacitus and "Roman History" by Cassius Dio.  Tacitus and Dio’s works are the only original sources we have about Boudica and are the foundation from which all other literature written about her is based upon.  This research is valuable because despite the fact that there are only two primary sources about her rebellion, she has consistently had a presence in the historical and literary records. 

Amber Castro
International Studies & Spanish/Hispanic Cultures

Are Mexican Undocumented Workers Stealing Our Jobs? A History of Mexican Laborers in the United States and What It Means For the Labor Market Today
Sponsored By: J Barlow

This paper investigates the foundations of Mexican labor migration into the United States and the consequent dependence on Mexican labor, despite contradictory conservative immigration law. Focusing primarily on the agricultural sector, we find that immigrants are not a threat to other native low-skill workers in the United States. The precedent for Mexican migration was established by the Bracero temporary-worker program that served as a post-WW II policy to supplement the agribusiness' shortage of workers. This “temporary” program, lasted 22 years and resulted in a rotation of approximately 4.5 million agri-laborers. Despite the program's end, the foundations for large-scale migration had been set. The U.S. immigration law that was written to replace the Bracero program failed to consider the withstanding demand for imported labor for the agricultural sector. The new system placed a preference on family-reunification and ignored the withstanding economic demands for foreign labor. With the Texas Proviso loophole, businesses could continue to hire undocumented workers which aided the hypocritical situation of demands for illegal laborers from South of the border. This establishment of employment in the U.S. allowed Mexican families the opportunity to settle permanently. This immigration law is the same system in place today. While Mexican undocumented workers do dominate the agricultural sector, we find that their native low-skill, low-wage counterparts rarely decide to seek employment in these arduous physical-labor jobs. In 2014, 11.7 million Mexican immigrants resided in the United States.

Zane Clarke
Chemistry

A New Method for the Esterification of Triglycerides in Olive Oil
Sponsored By: Richard Hark

Olive oil is an important component in the food industry. Its distinct flavor and the recent increased awareness of its health benefits make it a commodity in increasing demand. There is scientific evidence that increased consumption of monounsaturated fat leads to decreased risk of coronary heart disease. The FDA allows producers of olive oil to place a health claim on their products because olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, most prevalent being oleic acid. It is therefore important for consumers and producers to know the quality of the oil, its state of preservation, and changes brought about in it by technological processes. Olive oils have great value due to their content of monounsaturated triglycerides and fatty acids which make them a target for exploitation. Extra virgin olive oil is of high value and quality because it is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids provide more health benefits and are more stable than polyunsaturated fatty acids. There have been cases of adulteration of olive oil as early as 1883. There are no compulsory labels or certifications required for producers of olive oil. The origins of olive oil is also misrepresented on bottles; a bottle may be labelled "Italian olive oil" when only a small amount of olive oil included originated in Italy. It is estimated that less than 10% of the worlds olive oil production meets the criteria for labeling as "extra virgin." However, up to 50% of retail olive oil is labelled as "extra virgin," these oils have been cut with cheaper olive oils, vegetable oils, or even lamp oil. The composition of the different fatty acids, and different triglycerides of olive oil is a very useful parameter for detecting adulterations or to check authenticity, since it can be considered as a fingerprint. In our work, we attempt to use BF3·Et2O in a new process to transesterify triglycerides to their corresponding ethyl esters, isolate them, and measure their relative abundance using GC-MS for the use in forensic analysis of different oils.

Ashlynn Cobb
Russian & International Studies

French Influence on Russian Gastromony
Sponsored By: Deborah Roney

This presentation will discuss French influence on Russian gastronomy as part of a larger research project on the cultural intersections of French and Russian gastronomy. While the influence of French society on Russia during the Petrine era is extensively studied, less attention is devoted to France's influence on Russian cuisine. Despite Russian high society embracing French ideas, including those related to gastronomy, during the Petrine era of the eighteenth century, the French Revolution and Napoleonic war resulted in French skepticism in Russia during the Tsarist era of the nineteenth century. I will begin the presentation with a brief overview of Peter the Great's desire to Europeanize Russia and will note the general influences of French society in Petrine Russia before discussing specific culinary concepts that Russian society adopted from France during both the Petrine and Tsarist periods. Through this presentation, I aim to show how French influence on Russian gastronomy changed between the Petrine and Tsarist eras.

Sean Collins
Masters of Accounting

Value Investing Principles
Sponsored By: Bradley Andrew

Giving an overview of value investing principles and show how I evaluated companies. Then ultimately decide which is the best company to invest in.

Nora Connors
Conflict Studies and Social Justice

Improving Healthcare: What the patient has to say
Sponsored By: Celia Cook-Huffman

Research has revealed that better patient experiences are associated with better health outcomes. Recent studies suggest that a good doctor-patient relationship is linked to improved health outcomes. The increasing importance of patient experience and rising interest in the quality of the doctor-patient relationship suggests the need to characterize these two domains of healthcare. Most studies measuring the patient experience and doctor-patient relationship have primarily focused on the doctor’s perspective. Lost in the discussion, however, is including the patient’s perspective. In the past decade, patients have become more involved in their own healthcare decisions. Examining patient perceptions will inform our understanding of how patients experience care with their doctor, which is essential to improving patient care. Incorporating patient perspectives also encourages both patients and doctors to confront their individual values, beliefs, and assumptions, which can influence the quality of interactions they share during the visit encounter. Using a qualitative research design, this study explored, from the patients’ perspective, the doctor-patient experience during the clinical encounter and the relationship between patients and doctors in a rural healthcare setting. The findings of this study have implications for educating doctors about communication and relationship-building interactions with patients and for further research into measuring the patient experience in rural clinical settings.

Augusta DeLaval
International Politics

Rousseau's Sexism, Then and Now
Sponsored By: J Barlow

How was Jean-Jacques Rousseau's writing used to restrict female identity in the late 1700s and early 1800s? How did women philosophers of his time and modern feminist authors receive his ideas? This research examines Rousseau's treatment of the natural, his sexist approach to the female body and mind, his prescriptions for the treatment and behavior of women, and some of the political and intellectual ramifications of his works. Through analysis of primary sources and secondary scholarly writings, Rousseau's philosophy is contextualized in reference to contemporary and modern feminism. 

Jacob Diviney
Politics

Metaphor Use of the Media, Donald Trump, and Hillary Clinton during the 2016 Presidential Election
Sponsored By: Dennis Plane

I evaluate the use of metaphors by the media, Donald Trump, and Hillary Clinton during the 2016 Presidential Election.  I conduct a content analysis of both the print media, television media, and the speeches and debates of Clinton and Trump.  Specifically, for the print media, I analyze the New York Times and the Washington Post.  I evaluate the shows Hardball with Chris Matthews, CNN Tonight, and The Kelly File for the television media.  While previous research of election metaphors has dealt with a single form of the media such as newspapers, mine involves a multitude of different media sources and the candidates themselves.  I find evidence that the media and the presidential candidates use metaphors extensively during the election.  I also discover that both the media and the candidates use a variety of different metaphors relating to sports, horse-racing, war, motion, cards, containers, natural disasters, nature, animals, and diseases and poisons.  Additionally, I discover that the introduction of a female candidate in the presidential election does not alter the differences in metaphor use by the candidates or the media which previous research has not indicated.  These findings suggest that certain metaphors are not masculine as past scholars have asserted. This concludes that so-called masculine metaphors such as sports and war are not just relegated to male politicians.

John Donlan
BioChemistry

Taxonomic Identity of Ratsnakes from Central Pennsylvania
Sponsored By: John Matter

Recent phylogenetic analysis has identified three clades of ratsnakes across the northern tier of the United States. 1) Eastern ratsnakes (Pantherophis alleghaniensis), 2) Gray ratsnakes (P. spiloides) and 3) Western ratsnakes (P. obsoletus) have been differentiated based on mtDNA sequence data (Burbrink et al. 2000). Black ratsnakes from central Pennsylvania have been identified as P. spiloides by some authorities.  Incomplete local sampling in this assessment has led to this assignment being uncertain. With this in mind, samples of local ratsnakes have been collected for morphological data that has been used for comparison with reference data for the currently-recognized ratsnake species. Data has been collected through direct and indirect measurements in a non-invasive manner. Results to date have been inconclusive and may point to hybridization between two species of ratsnakes. Further research, including a larger sample size and the use of genetic analysis, will be used to attempt to gain more resolution into this problem.

Anthony Downey
Chemistry

Analysis and Categorization of Counterfeit Currency Using Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)
Sponsored By: Richard Hark

Though it represents less than 1% of the total amount of US currency in circulation domestically, the proliferation of counterfeit money, especially $100 Federal Reserve notes, is a major concern to a variety of government agencies. Large-scale counterfeiting operations are based in several countries, and each produces bills that differ slightly from each other. Visual inspection is the primary method used to categorize these counterfeit bills, and can be employed to a high degree of accuracy. The process, however, is time consuming and does not take into account the composition of the paper and ink used in the counterfeit. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical technique that can be used to address this issue.



LIBS is a form of atomic emission spectroscopy in which a laser is used to superheat a sample, which cause electrons to be promoted from the ground to excited state energy levels. As the sample cools, the electrons relax back to the ground state, releasing light at wavelengths that are characteristic for each element. Spectrometers collect the light to form a spectrum. LIBS has been successfully applied to the analysis of various materials of forensic interest, such as drugs, explosives, fingerprints, glass, and gunshot residue. Little to no sample preparation is required for analysis, making it ideal for use in the field.



In this study, performed with the cooperation of the United States Secret Service, a handheld SciAps, Inc Z-500 LIBS unit was used to analyze over $40,000 of genuine and counterfeit $100 currency. Areas contacting three different types of ink were interrogated along with the paper in each sample, and multiple sources of counterfeit currency were used in the analysis.  The results of the study demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of a handheld LIBS unit in the detection and categorization of counterfeit currency.

Nickelaus Engle
Spatial Studies in Mathematical Art

Spatial Harmonies: Aesthetic Forms of Classical Thought
Sponsored By: Karen Rosell

Art can be the expression of an idea in space. Regardless of medium, art is the culmination of thought, manifested first within our minds and then defined and abstracted through our concept of a space-time continuum. As the Greeks strongly encouraged, by implementing geometric relations to forms and patterns, we can aesthetically strengthen spatial expressions. Geometry, the basis of rigorous, deductive reasoning, systematically formulates harmony. Proportion, balance, repetition and rhythm establish synergetic relationships within art, and numbers elucidate the rationale for these relationships. This thesis investigates how the five traditional notions of space (point, line, surface, volume, and time) can be associated with art and music, and how these spatial representations, by integrating geometric properties, aesthetically amplify artistic expressions. By examining philosophical ideals from Greek antiquity-such as those of Pythagoras, Plato and Euclid-and comparing those foundational concepts with artistic expressions by some of the most renowned artists throughout time-such as Leonardo da Vinci, Salvador Dali, Le Corbusier and Claude Debussy-we may be able to better comprehend how harmonic space can be formed by the assistance of classical thought.

Amber Evans
Wildlife Conservation

Mosquito Creek: A decade analysis of eastern coyote (Canis latrans) harvest
Sponsored By: Uma Ramakrishnan
Presenting with:
  • Slaughter, Bethany

The goal of our study is to evaluate hunter harvest data collected on eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) that were brought to the annual Mosquito Creek Sportsmen’s Hunt in Pennsylvania. Over 1800 coyotes (47% female and 53% male) were submitted to the competition between 2005 and 2017. We are looking at spatial and temporal variation in hunter success; type of techniques used to capture coyotes; regional variation in coyote size; and time of harvest.  Hunters reported the harvest location by county, and we explored this spatial data using ArcGIS 10.4.1. The coyote weights ranged from 16.6 to 47.6 lb over the 12-year duration of this study. The most common method for harvesting coyotes was dogs, which comprised 60.2% of the coyotes harvested across all years. There was a 69.7% increase in use of dogs to harvest coyotes from 2005 to 2017. The northeast and northwest regions of Pennsylvania showed a higher percentage of dogs use when compared to any other region. While use of prey calls is the second most common hunting method, making up 28.6% of harvested coyotes overall, there is a  47.7% decrease in the use of calls from 2005 to 2017. The total coyotes harvested for the Mosquito Creek Hunt from 2005 to 2017 increased by 48.6%. No significant change was seen in the average size of coyotes harvested for this hunt during the time of the study. We are currently looking at variation in hunting techniques and harvest rates by region over the past twelve years.

Jaime Fell
International Politics

Public Education and School Choice Programs
Sponsored By: J Barlow

The education system in the United States has stagnated. Increases in funding have not equated to an increase in academic achievement. On the contrary, students in the United States are moving in the opposite direction in math, science, and reading. This paper strives to understand the failures of the public education system, by examining relationship between the Federal Government and schools across the country. Some of the main problems that come to the forefront are the teachers’ union, school districts, a lack of incentive for teachers, and tenure. To make a difference in the education of the United States’ youth, reform must be discussed. Two popular opinions that take shape include varying amounts of involvement by the Federal Government.



This paper strives to find a common ground between public and private education through school voucher programs. Voucher programs have been implemented in numerous cities throughout the United States. This investigation will look at the research done on these programs to see where they succeeded or failed. An emphasis will be placed on why some groups of people benefit from vouchers while others do not. Finally, this paper identifies the components that make a successful voucher programs and advocates for the application of these principles nationwide. By analyzing the failures of our current education system, and considering the possibility of a system that creates equality and opportunities for all, we begin to see a reform plan take shape that can solve this dire problem. 

Jacob Finkle
Environmental Science

Transmitter Retention and Impact on Spawning in Hatchery Brown Trout
Sponsored By: Uma Ramakrishnan
Presenting with:
  • Gloekler, Suzanne
  • Kowalick, Vince

The goal of our research is to evaluate the retention rate of transmitters surgically implanted in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and the effect of these transmitters on egg production and mortality. A previous field study conducted on brown trout in the Little Juniata River in 2015-2016 found dropped transmitters in the river. To understand the cause of this finding, they conducted a transmitter retention study at the Benner Springs hatchery in spring 2016. They found that 10 of the 30 implanted transmitters were expelled during their study. In our current study we used smaller dummy transmitters, similar to a new model that will be used in an upcoming field trout migration project. The 2017 dummy transmitter is similar to Lotek model NTC-6-2 and is approximately 52% lighter and 22% smaller (in length) than the 2016 Lotek model MST-930-MT transmitter, which was used in the previous study. We also used a wire (to mimic the antenna) that is more flexible and has a plastic coating on the outside, which is likely to cause less friction. In the 2016 hatchery study, four transmitters were expelled at the point that the antenna exited the body wall. We hypothesize that the flexible wire may avoid this problem. In the 2016 study, they also found that three of the transmitters dropped out of the fish at the surgery site between 36-42 days after the surgery. To minimize this potential problem, we changed the size of the incision along the ventral midline on the brown trout by using smaller transmitters. Finally, we will compare egg production between fish with transmitters and fish without transmitters. The results of this study will aid Juniata College’s preparation for a successful study of brown trout migration in the summer of 2017.



 

Matthew Gaynor
Integrated Media Arts

Exploration of Narrative Through Cinematography - Short Film
Sponsored By: Ryan Gibboney

As a writer and director, I developed the idea in IMA Lab II, to use solely camera work to create a theme based on the aesthetics of the film. It is a three minute film that portrays an ambiguous narrative that plays host to the star of the show, the camerawork. The film is titled, "Tetrasomia" as it is based on the four original elements: Fire, Earth, Water, and Air. Each section, will have camerawork that mimics the movement of each of the elements. The film will also be based on the instrumental music created by Juniata Student, Davon Mitchell. The fundamental motive of this project is to explore the medium of film, and open up doors that exist within it. My past projects have been narrative based, and subsequently the cinematography would be created with the plot in mind. This project is the inverse of that idea, I created the camerawork, and the plot followed. Not only does it act as a test for me as an artist, but I believe it will raise specific questions directed towards the medium..

Alexandria Groves
Professional Writing

The Concept of a Previvor
Sponsored By: Hannah Bellwoar

This presentation will focus on the definition of the label, "previvor," a person who carries an inherited predisposition to cancer. With the help of research and my own experience with carrying a BRCA2 mutation, I have found defining similarities that many previvors share that help construct the concept of the label. These similarities are also what differentiate previvors from cancer survivors. The goal of this presentation is to make people aware of previvorship and how it affects the person who as inherited the mutation.

Giang Anh Ha
Economics and Mathematical Studies

How the end of TPP is not the end of Vietnam's Economy
Sponsored By: Kathy Baughman
Presenting with:
  • Ha, Anh

The purpose of this study is to determine Vietnam’s economic performance after the fall of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). The research will be statistically analyzing data with trading variables and other related variables from World Integrated Trade Solutions, World Data Bank and General Statistics of Vietnam.  The majority of the data will be analyzed through STATA and R to evaluate economic performance during the 5 years before TPP was enacted in Vietnam (2011-2015), the year TPP was enacted in Vietnam (2016) and a performance prediction in 2017, after the end of TPP. A single equation ADL (autoregressive distributed lag) suggested by ING will also be used to forecast trade in 2017.

Ethan Habbershon
Biology

What causes the temperature-size rule? A study of two aquatic crustaceans with different body-size responses to temperature
Sponsored By: Douglas Glazier

The temperature-size rule (TSR) states that ectotherms should grow to a larger adult size in cold versus warm environments. Approximately 83 percent of all studied ectothermic species exhibit the TSR (Atkinson 1994), though the reduction in adult size with increasing temperature is on average 10 times greater in aquatic versus terrestrial species (Forster et al. 2012). Despite the general significance of the TSR, debates continue about the mechanism(s) causing it. Therefore, the purpose of our research has been to test hypothetical mechanisms proposed in primary literature to explain the TSR, by using two sexually dimorphic aquatic crustacean species: Lirceus brachyurus (Isopoda), which shows the TSR, and Gammarus minus (Amphipoda), which does not. We tested for the TSR by comparing mean body sizes of sexually mature (amplexing) males and females of several populations of each species that have naturally lived for many generations in freshwater springs with different, relatively constant water temperatures. These natural comparisons contrast with most TSR studies that have examined relatively short-term, single-generation effects of temperature in the laboratory. Natural comparisons are useful because they permit the study of adaptive (genotypic) responses to different temperatures, and not merely phenotypically plastic responses as seen in the laboratory. So far, our results contradict the size-fecundity hypothesis (Arendt 2011), and provide mixed support for the oxygen-limitation hypothesis (Hoefnagel and Verberk 2015). Interspecific differences in thermal sensitivity of oxygen supply and demand have been examined by using inter and intra-population comparisons of the body-mass scaling of gill surface area and metabolic (oxygen consumption) rate. We have also begun to investigate how temperature affects the cell sizes and relative rates of growth and sexual maturation in our two test species.

Carly Hafer
Biology

Antibiotic Use in Food Animals: Therapeutic Use as a Path of Least Resistance
Sponsored By: Kathleen Jones

In today's society, consumers are more conscientious than ever about food quality, and want to ensure that their food was produced reputably and responsibly. Increasing concern over the excessive administration of antibiotics in animals raised for beef, pork, poultry, and dairy has called for a change to how antibiotic use is monitored. Many worry that antibiotic overuse in both preventing illness and increasing growth rates contributes to the occurrence of antibacterial-resistant infections. However, some of the studies investigating the effects of imprudent antibiotic applications are inconclusive, raising the question of whether antimicrobial resistance in food animals is a matter of producer misuse or veterinary overuse. In this presentation, I examine the various uses of antibiotics for food animals, the potential side effects of antibiotic use, and the benefits of effective policies for properly administering antibiotics to assert that they should only be used in the treatment of disease in food animals.

Elijah Hall
Biology

Predatory morphological adaptation in Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) in response to geographic divergence
Sponsored By:
Presenting with:
  • Martin, Ben

Body morphology can have a large impact on fish, and is highly divergent depending on latitude of separate populations. We collected Micropterus Salmoides (LMB) from Maine and Pennsylvania, and analyzed their morphological characteristics using specialized software. Maine LMB were found to have smaller jaws (t test, P<0.001), and thicker peduncle depths (t test, p<0.001), and vary in overall body shape (CVA, p<0.001) compared to LMB in Pennsylvania. Previous research has found that northern LMB are typically smaller in size at age than those in more southerly latitudes. Smaller jaws inhibit consumption of larger, more energy dense prey, and thicker peduncle depths decrease overall swimming capabilities of Maine LMB. Combining these findings suggest that LMB in Maine and comparable latitudes lack morphological traits to compete with prey that are typically consumed in southern LMB populations. These data have implications with stocking, as northern populations would not be able to compete effectively in southern latitudes, and southern populations would die due to winter severity, suggesting stocking should be latitudinally specific. These trends may be likely to change, however, as global climate change continues to decrease growing season, and shift predator-prey balances across latitudes.

Dallas Hamlin
Biochemistry

Expression Profiles of Dichloromethane Degrading Communities
Sponsored By: Regina Lamendella

Microbial community analysis was performed on groundwater samples from a mature remediation site. The site is a former pharmaceutical manufacturing facility that employed an underground storage tank for methylene chloride (dichloromethane or DCM). An undetermined quantity of DCM was released from the tank and piping system over several years. This study examined four quarterly groundwater sampling events starting in October 2013. Samples were collected from 11 wells per event and sent for RNA-Seq analysis to identify the differential expression of genes related to the degradation of methylene chloride and other organic solvents used in industry. Alongside a prior functional metagenomics study of the same sites, another aim of this project is to identify novel taxa or consortia of microbes that possess the capacity to degrade organic solvents like methylene chlorides. Preliminary results indicate distinct expression profiles between communities that do degrade DCM and those that cannot. Continued research may positively inform future efforts at bioremediation and mediate the impact of future contamination events. 

Trevor Havemann
Philosophy Politics Economics

Fact or Myth: The Gender Wage Gap
Sponsored By: J Barlow

The gender earnings gap has been a subject of recurring controversy since first-wave feminists began their campaign for gender equality in the early 19th century. Gender roles and economic status among genders has changed dramatically since women began entering the American work force. However, much remains the same as men are still more likely to be the primary breadwinners and women the caregivers of their families.  This paper aims to capture the reasons women still earn less than their male counterparts, and find the methods necessary to close that gap. It also looks beyond wages, and argues for a workforce more open and inclusive to every gender in leadership positions. Based on an aggregate data pool that includes education, occupation, sociobiology, legislation, case study, and temporal flexibility, the gender wage gap for equal work is virtually zero. However, while outright discrimination is not easily found, other types of discrimination, possibly unconscious forms, has survived and is found throughout our modern culture. Societal pressures and traditional gender norms shape the decisions males and females make when entering and leaving the workforce.

Ryan Heisler
Aquatic Ecology & Fisheries Mgmt.

Linking patterns in endocrine-disrupting compounds to storm discharge and YOY SMB health in the upper Juniata River watershed.
Sponsored By: George Merovich
Presenting with:
  • Stenger, Logan

Population declines and disease incidence in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Susquehanna River basin have been linked to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) as a likely causative agent. Nothing is known about this link in the upper Juniata River basin and how EDC patterns may vary with hydrologic conditions. Consequently, we sampled water in the basin for EDCs across a range of discharges to identify possible connections between storm flow and spikes in EDC concentrations. We surveyed young-of-the-year (YOY) smallmouth bass populations, collected information on their diet, and recorded incidence of disease as well. We found high variation in EDCs concentrations (measured as total estrogenicity) at the site level and across the watershed. EDC concentrations varied with discharge. YOY smallmouth bass were in excellent condition and sustained very few abnormalities. Nearly all individuals had abundant prey items in the stomach. Much of this study is still on-going, including histopathological analysis of fish, but early indications suggest that EDCs are present in quantities that should be considered important for addressing smallmouth bass anomalies in the broader Susquehanna River basin. 

Jennifer Hochuli
History and Museum Studies with Art History minor

The Myth of the American West: The Impact of Western Exploration on Eastern Americans
Sponsored By: Dave Hsiung

In 1803, President Jefferson purchased a plot of land that tripled the size of the young United States. As explorers and frontiersmen ventured into the “great unknown,” the scientific and cultural material possessions, as well as the experiences they gained, shaped the American East. While previous historian of the American West, William H. Goetzmann discusses the significance of western exploration on the nation as a whole, I argue that the people of the East developed an idealized or romanticized view of the West. Such an understanding resulted from the inaccurate information disseminated amongst American civilization as well as misrepresentations of the west through art and literature. By the time manifest destiny, the phrase given to the belief that Americans are obligated to expand westward as Christian Americans, was coined, primary documentation makes it clear that American easterners held an idealized view of the West.

Michael Holt
Engineering Physics

Producing Steam at Precisely Planned Temperatures
Sponsored By: Yu Gu

Certain temperature ranges, notable 100f to 200f, are useful for professional cooking applications by allowing for food to cook to a safe internal temperature and decreasing the rate of overcooking and drying out. This method of heat application is called sous vide. Though this is typically done via circulation and use of a heater in a deep pot, I will attempt to cool air from boiling temperature by use of a variable heat sink to create an alternate device for achieving this cooking process.

Morgan Horell
Multi-media Arts production with Marketing

Understanding Why: A Creative Analysis of Four Social Media Content Producers And How Company Values Distinguish Their Unique Video Style and Tone
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

Why? It is the underlying question that drives a company's creative choices. Answering the "Why" lays the groundwork for what they produce and how they produce it. I argue that in video production, this question of "why" heavily influences the unique style and tone of a video shaping the specific combinations of visual technical elements executed. In this research, I analyze one representative video of four major social media video content producers: attn:, Buzzfeed, Cut, and SoulPancake. Each of these companies have multiple viral videos online and reflect a shift in video production aimed at social media based content with high audience engagement. Looking at the background and mission statement of each company, I work to understand the "why" driving their choices and unique goals in creating content. This analysis also includes understanding a company's target audience and how that audience interacts with the video message on social media sites. In addition, I analyze the unique stylistic and tonal qualities of each video by creating a style guide for each company. The guide describes the distinctive combinations of camera angles, lighting styles, editing techniques, and music choices that visually construct the style and tone of the video. Can the systematic understanding of the company's answer to "why" effectively help me recreate their video style and tone in videos of my own creation? Using the company background research and style guides created, I implement the filmic techniques discussed to recreate the company style and tones in four distinct videos. This research and creative analysis explore the unique features that are used to distinguish a company from its competitors in a field that is rapidly growing as our culture becomes more saturated with video content through social media.

Hannah Hrobuchak
Biology

The Role of the Sphingolipid Metabolism Pathway in Healthy Aging
Sponsored By: Jason Chan

Animals are exposed to stressors, such as temperature and chemical stress, which may contribute to their aging. Organisms respond to stress by mobilizing cell-signaling pathways, which are critical to control cell function and stress response. One specific type of pathway is the sphingolipid-signaling pathway, which interconverts between different sphingolipids that can function as critical cell survival and cell death factors. Two critical enzymes are sphingosine kinase and ceramide kinase, which converts cell death signals to cell survival factors (ceramide-1-phosphate and sphingosine-1-phosphate). However, less is known regarding the role of these lipid signaling pathways in healthspan, or healthy aging in animals. To examine how these enzymes mediate healthspan, we use the genetic model organism C. elegans to examine sphingolipid metabolism. We identified that sphingosine kinase, in particular, is important for mediating lifespan and healthspan. Through neuromuscular and heat stress assays, we determined that locomotor behavior and thermoregulatory responses of animals declined at greater rates when they lacked sphingosine kinase. However, we found that there is no differences in locomotor response in ceramide kinase mutants. Further examination of how sphingosine kinase and ceramide kinase loss at developmental and post-reproductive windows will help us better understand the role of lipids in aging.

Davon Jackson
Health Administration/Communications

Engage for Health: Taking an Active Role in Your Healthcare
Sponsored By: Michelle Baker
Presenting with:
  • Spring 2017, HEALTH COM CLASS

The point of this project is to use the Engage for Health PowerPoint (distributed by the Healthsystem Association of Pennsylvania) in coordination with the marketing/public relations office at JC Blair Memorial Hospital to conduct a quantitate analysis of patients in Huntingdon community. We aim to use the materials given to us by HAP to promote patients to take an active role in their health care through engagement. We will be communicating with residents of lower-income housing, senior center residents, and young adults. Our goal is to use what we've been given and the topics discussed in class to empower patients to find ways to fully understand their health care. We will be conducting a brief quantitate analysis of patient opinions/questions/observations when they visit their doctors’ offices so that we can determine what hinders effective communication in relation to quality medical care.

Cody Januszko
English

Decapitation and the State of the Nation
Sponsored By: Amy Mathur

In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Sir Gawain engages in a game heavily dictated by the rules of the court and the code of chivalry. This game involves a stroke-for-stroke beheading. In later literature, like Thomas Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur, decapitations are all too common. Acts of violence rule the kingdom as King Arthur’s court crumbles around him, and his knights are the primary perpetrators.



Knights are violent. Their lives are gritty and gruesome. By exploring knights in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Octavian Imperator, “The Physician’s Tale,” Arthur and Gorlagon, and Le Morte d’Arthur, I will trace the descent of beheadings from orderly to chaotic. Furthermore, I will attempt to tie this shift from organized to disordered violence to the declining feudal system. Just as the court and aristocracy loses its place at the head of society, so too do many people lose their heads in the literature.



There are three major sections to the paper. The first gives context for the beheadings in the stories, since some are obscure pieces of literature. The second is a brief overview of feudalism with special focus on the years surrounding the stories that I have selected. Finally, I will attempt to relate the differences in violence in the tales to the decline of the feudal system.

Chelsea Keller
Biology

The Need for a Common Experience: The Summer Reading Program
Sponsored By: James Tuten

In 2001, Juniata established a summer reading program to create a common experience that could be shared among incoming first-year students. The program operates through a selection committee who chooses a book that is promoted throughout the summer to all incoming students. During the fall semester, the program hosts an event directly related to the reading selection in hopes of stimulating intra-campus conversation. The effectiveness of this program has been assessed through analyzing survey data compiled over the past four years. These surveys inquire about the percentage of the book read, connections made between the student and the reading of the book, and questions that assess the opinions of the book selection. Results show that the percentage of the book read by students fluctuates between years, and that the amount read differs significantly between male and female students. Through this assessment, the committee is able to see ways to improve the summer reading program as well as create a better reading experience for incoming students. 

Veronica Kirchner
Biology and Mathematics

Can Microbes Predict Fracking Activity?
Sponsored By: Kimberly Roth

Can we predict fracking activity near streams based on microbial community structure and other factors? The decision tree method is a machine learning algorithm that generates a model resembling a flowchart, and is thus suitable for high-dimensional data analysis. Decision trees have practicality because the method is analogous to human decision-making. Advantages of decision trees over other regression and classification techniques include the easily interpretable results in the form of a simple graphical display of a "tree". A random forest model involves the generation of a collection of decision trees, whereby combining multiple trees improves prediction accuracy. In this study, random forest modeling was applied to metagenomics data to predict the fracking status of streams. Along with microbial abundance variables, important metadata variables were utilized as predictors in the analysis. Results from the analysis will be presented to address the primary question.

Nathan KohlWyatt
Politics

The Effects of Modern Campaign Finance Laws on Montana
Sponsored By: J Barlow

The United States Supreme Court has overruled precedent on multiple occasions when reviewing campaign finance law. Beginning in 1976, the court ruled in Buckley v Valeo that money was a form of political speech. The court ruled that governments could not limit money spent by individuals or groups outside of a campaign, but they could limit contribution given directly to candidates due to the creation or appearance of quid pro quo arrangements.



In 1990, the court reversed its previous decision in Buckley regarding limitations on indirect spending. Austin v Michigan Chamber of Commerce focused on corporations and argued that the corrosive nature of money in politics combined with a corporation’s immense wealth gives reasonable cause to limit corporate political speech.



The Supreme Court reversed its position again in Citizens United vs Federal Elections Commission and made indirect spending limitations constitutional infirm. This gave corporations and individuals full legal protection to spend unlimited money on elections so long as they disclosed their spending.



In 2012, The Montana Supreme Court argued­– in Western Tradition Partnership v Montana Attorney General– that Montana does not have to adhere to the Citizens United ruling due to Montana’s special circumstances and needs. The US Supreme Court overruled the Montana Supreme Court later that year.



My thesis breaks down the US Supreme Court and Montana Supreme Court cases reviews the previous effects of corruption on Montana as described in WTP v Att. General, analyzes spending data showing the intentional and unintentional impacts of the Citizens United ruling on Montana Elections and reviews the legislative patterns of Montana’s elected officials to uncover the reality or appearance of quid pro quo relationships in Montana Politics.



 

Emily Kutz
PreK-4 and Spanish PreK-12 Education

Análisis del Tango: Uno por Enrique Santos Discépolo y Mariano Mores
Sponsored By: Amy Frazier-Yoder

Considerado uno de los "tangos fundamentales", "Uno" con una letra del famoso Enrique Santos Discépolo y música por el famoso Mariano Mores ha sido grabado y tocado por numerosas orquestras en todo el mundo.  Además, ha sido interpretado desde estilos folclóricos hasta el rock.  Esta presentación va a explorar sus rasgos históricos, el simbolismo, y la conexión de que tiene este tango al género.

Emily Kutz
PreK-4 and Spanish PreK-12 Education

Educación en España: La conexión entre la economía y la educación bilingüe
Sponsored By: Henry Thurston-Griswold

Esta presentación va a explorar el tema de la educación en España y su desarrollo hacia la educación bilingüe y enfocará la enseñanza de los idiomas extranjeros.  Va a haber un enfoque en la influencia de la economía desde el franquismo y su conexión y sus impactos con respecto a este tema.  Además, la presentación va a examinar las escuelas públicas y el papel de las academias de idiomas.  Finalmente, va a haber una explicación de la situación hoy en día y cómo se puede compararla con Estados Unidos y México. 

Bram Kyer
Environmental Science

Documenting the Transitional Archaic in the Upper Raystown Branch of the Juniata River
Sponsored By: Jonathan Burns

Sparks Farm lies along the Raystown Branch of the Juniata River in Bedford County, near Everett, PA. The 378-acre property and a surface collection of 437 stone tools recovered from the site were donated to Juniata College in 2016. These artifacts have no stratigraphic context, but they were analyzed to infer broad trends. A test unit on the site produced fragments of steatite containers along with chert and rhyolite lithics. The site location and presence of steatite, along with diagnostic points from the collection, all signal occupation during the transitional archaic period. Though similar sites have been documented along the Susquehanna River and the main branch of the Juniata River, few sites have been documented this far upstream. These findings indicate that the transitional archaic pattern along the Susquehanna River and its tributaries continued as far as this site, though more research must be done to determine the full extent.

Diana Langer
Intercultural Communication

Beautiful Suffering: Structuring our vision of refugees as the other through winning Pulitzer Prize images in 2016
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

It became part of our everyday life to see people suffer on their way to a better life and occasionally one of these pictures becomes iconic and burn into our collective memory. In 2015, 21 million people were categorized as refugees all over the world (UNICEF 2016) and the topic is covered more by the media. But pictures do not show the refugee’s situation in an objective way. Even though the people in the images suffer, these pictures inhabit beauty. I argue, that beauty is used stylistically to arouse our attention , without the consideration of cultural symbolism in othering these refugees, for example. Within my thesis I concentrate on the formal elements of those images. On the one hand, I look at the composition and design of images, which include the frame, focus, point of view and color. On the other hand, I  concentrate on the dramatic elements, of characters setting, theme and symbolism in the image, which inhabit stereotypes of race and gender. As my object of inquiry, I examine the Pulitzer Prize winner of the year 2016 in the category breaking news photography. I chose a random sample of 10 images from the 35 winning photographs by the staff of Reuters and of The New York Times. I analyze these 10 to know what makes this pictures memorable or even beautiful, even as they reveal the suffering and othering of the refugee. A question I hope I can answer in the end is: Does the beauty in the images challenge us to see beyond our biases or affirm our worst fears about refugees?

Casey Lapham
Environmental Studies

Tolerance to Chromium of Plants that Interact with Mycorrhizal Fungi: Survival of Arabidopsis thaliana and Sorghum vulgare
Sponsored By: Norris Muth

Various micorrhizal fungi are able to absorb and reduce heavy metals as well as protect plants with which they have a symbiotic relationship from the toxic effects of metals. This experiment investigates the effects of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and five strains of the fungus Metharizium anisopliae on the germination and growth of the plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Sorghum vulgare in environments contaminated with chromium. Plants of A. thaliana were grown in Petri dishes with and without a division, with chromium, and with conidia of a strain of fungus. Seeds of S. vulgare impregnated with micorrhizal fungi conidia were grown in a greenhouse in sterile soil. The results suggest that these species of fungi have a protective effect on A. thaliana in environments with chromium, but with the majority of the strains it is necessary for the fungus to have direct contact with the plant. Also, the fungi had a positive impact on the development of S. vulgare in environments without chromium, but in the presence of the metal they had a negative impact.

Kien Le
Media Art & Practices

Be Careful What You Wish For: Suggestive Rape Imagery in Fashion Advertising
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

When it comes to a formal event like a gala, the dress code insists on men in suits and women in gowns. Men do not have as many options in suits, the fashion consist of dress pants, dress shirts, blazer and a nice tie. Women, on the other hand, are privileged with various arrays of design and social acceptance. There options consist of: fish-tail gown, off-shoulder dress, and suits. The demand is undeniably stronger; therefore, the fashion industry is fighting hard to meet customers’ needs. There are more brands for womenswear than for menswear which makes womenswear advertising extremely more competitive. To draw greater attention, advertisers explore different aspects of culture and they found a nugget in the field of sexuality, especially the secret desires for power, dominance, and rape. Given the existence of patriarchy and rape culture in our society, I argue that the use of erotic rape fantasy in women’s fashion advertising glamorizes the acts of violence, seduction and desirability with the women’s idea of freedom of choice. The purpose of this study is to analyze sexual cues which are used in fashion ads and provide the insight into the glamorization of rape in popular culture. The artifacts analyzed as representative examples are Dolce & Gabbana Spring 2007 and Calvin Klein Fall 2010 ad campaign.  

Henry Lush
International Politics

The Expanding Role of the Arctic Council in the High North
Sponsored By: J Barlow

Currently, the Arctic is undergoing a massive ice melt as a result of a general warming of the Earth's atmosphere. Prior to the shrinking of the ice mass, resources in this region were inaccessible. With the receding ice comes a variety of problematic, national and international questions, in particular for the countries of the high North, but also for the rest of the international community. Included among these issues are questions of sovereignty over newly uncovered landmasses, control over shipping routes, and drilling rights in exclusive economic zones (USGS estimates that the Arctic region contains 90 billion barrels worth of oil). State interests in resources in the high North are further complicated by the rights of indigenous peoples living in areas of increased economic interest and by further environmental concerns such as the "graying of the ice" and the potential for oil spills as a result of overseas transportation through hazardous waters. With the myriad international concerns in a region undergoing rapid geopolitical, economic and environmental changes, the question arises, what is the role of existing international organizations in regards to governing disputes in this zone, and are they sufficient to address the vast array of challenges?

Margaret Lykens
Russian

English Loanword Patterns in the Russian Language
Sponsored By: Deborah Roney

This research examines Russian language borrowings from English from the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries. The goal of this study is to analyze the phonological, morphological, and semantic contexts of accepted loanwords from the given time period in order to understand how such words are changed to suit the specific linguistic needs of the Russian language. This study also examines how loanwords from English are used in contemporary Russian literature.

Heather Marra
Multicultural Social Issues

Agricultural Resources and Community in Huntingdon, PA: A Case Study
Sponsored By: Cynthia deVries

The research examines The Huntingdon Community Food Garden, a ReInvision Huntingdon initiative, and its impact on the Huntingdon community. Research was conducted through interviews with local food businesses within Huntingdon County regarding their use of the Garden, as well as their involvement in this local agricultural resource. An interview was also conducted with Ryan Gibboney, the Lead Coordinator of the Garden, regarding its initial intent and its reach within the community. In addition to these interviews, a survey was circulated intending to assess the Juniata community, as a fixture of the Huntingdon community, and its involvement in the community initiative.



Through this process, the research aims to identify the ways in which the Huntingdon Community Food Garden is being implemented, local awareness and use of this resource, and whether the Garden’s intention has been fulfilled by its community.

Benjamin Martin
Environmental Science

Health of Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Juniata River
Sponsored By:

The Susquehanna River basin is one of the largest and most diverse watersheds in the northeastern US, draining nearly half of Pennsylvania. It is comprised of six large sub-basins that face numerous anthropogenic and natural pressures, potentially impacting aquatic ecosystem health.  Micropterus dolomieu (smallmouth bass- SMB) are the predominant fish throughout the Juniata River Basin, and recent work suggests that SMB populations are on the decline. Run off from agricultural herbicides has widely been shown to negatively effect fish development and reproduction, and has been identified as a potential cause for SMB population declines in the Susquehanna River Basin. During the summer of 2016, we assessed potential impacts of agriculture on SMB populations in 30 sub-watersheds to the Juniata River. Polar Organic Chemical Integrated Samplers (POCIS) were installed for 40 days at 6 sites across the Juniata Basin with varying degrees of agricultural intensity. POCIS samplers were then screened for 6 widely used agricultural chemicals to estimate in stream concentrations.  Additionally, physiochemical data including pH, conductivity, tds, DO, and phosphorus were taken at all 30 sites. 3-5 SMB were collected from 9 sites to assess morphology using MorphoJ.  GIS was used to quantify land cover statistics for the 30 sub-watersheds. All 6 of the screened agrochemicals were present at quantifiable levels in the Juniata watershed including Atrazine, Desethylatrazine (DEA), Metlachlor, Acetachlor, Prometon, and Simazine. POCIS results showed that the ratio of agricultural to forested land within watersheds significantly correlated with concentrations of Atrazine (R2=0.689, P=0.04086), and DEA (R2=0.9067, P=0.04778). Additionally, several physiochemical parameters correlated with percent agriculture and percent forest. Our watershed wide study of the Juniata River Basin indicates strong agricultural influence with the potential to impact aquatic communities and the smallmouth bass fishery in both the Juniata Basin, and the entire Chesapeake Bay Watershed. 

Jorge Martinez
English

Delaney and the Ante-Bellum South Courts
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

An important aspect of the slave narrative that is poorly represented in literary and historical discussion is the way that public attitudes and the legal system influenced lives of blacks in the antebellum South. The ways in which free blacks challenged the laws and attitudes of the time played a vital role in shattering the social construct of slavery and influencing legislature that attempted to restrict their freedoms. This paper thus explores the contributions of free blacks to legislature through public outcry, petitions, and connections with whites in their communities. The narrative of Lucy Ann Delaney and other documents of historical accounts are used to demonstrate the impact of the actions of free blacks in both legislature and the context of the slave narrative.

Tanner Martz
Geology

Slavery in Maryland: the Mason-Dixon Line Complex
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

Maryland, the most Northern of the Southern States, has often been given the reputation of being considered the "best place" to be a slave, if one must be a slave, based on the treatment of its enslaved peoples. This presentation is designed to evaluate the horrors of Maryland slaves to see if this statement has any truth to it, or if the only aspect of this is Maryland's geographic location based upon its distance to the Mason-Dixon Line and its high ratio of free blacks compared to other states.
The main sources of information are the lesser known The Life of John Thompson, A fugitive Slave; Containing His History of 25 Years in Bondage, and His Providential Escape, and the better-known Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass. Both are first hand narratives that take place in Maryland between the 1810s and 1830s. They each describe the atrocities of slavery in Maryland and present evidence that Maryland slaveowners may have overcompensated for its "soft" reputation and geographic position. Other sources will be articles that focus on the historical events during this time period, including articles that describe the progress of abolition and the depths of the roots from the Mason-Dixon Line that slaves could take in order to escape to the North.

Amanda Matta
Museum Studies - Art History

Intersections in Contemporary Chinese Art: Where Tradition Meets Innovation
Sponsored By: Karen Rosell

Modernism in art did not arise as part of a linear, chronological development within China, as it did in Western countries. Instead, modernism entered the Chinese artistic sphere as a decided interruption. In the millennia leading up to the 20th century, Chinese art was practiced in ways which reflected class structure; in the earliest imperial dynasties, it was employed as a method of both demonstrating and reinforcing social roles. As time went on and artistic practice was further refined, its practice came to represent a mastery of a range of scholarly subjects: philosophy, poetry, and calligraphy prominent among them. However, the dawn of the 20th century in China witnessed a definite abandonment of the status quo. Industrial modernization, along with Mao's Cultural Revolution of the 1960s and 70s, forced artists to embrace practices developed in the West. As traditional methods and styles were eradicated, aesthetic considerations gave way to a more utilitarian purpose. In the latter half of the 20th century, Chinese artists were propelled into an artistic sphere for which there was no precedent in their own nation. From the 1980s on, many began to actively embrace conceptualism, even as they re-embraced ancient practices and forms. A question remains as to whether contemporary art in China depends on Western social systems and artistic discourses, or if it is genuinely rooted in earlier cultural traditions. By evaluating Chinese artistic practices in their original contexts, along with subsequent developments present in the works of contemporary artists, I will demonstrate the ways in which contemporary Chinese art is characterized by the unique, unprecedented intersections of convention and originality in a world where art is increasingly experimental.

Marlene Matula
International Issues

Revitalizing Food Policy in the U.S.
Sponsored By: J Barlow

Food culture is your diet, lifestyle and identify surrounding how, what, where and with whom you eat. It encompasses four main sets of relationships: health, family, community, and nature. Maintaining these relationships is key to having a healthy, positive, and beneficial food culture. Western food culture has evolved to a point where these relationships have eroded. With the creation of a fast and convenient food culture to support a fast-paced, high stress lifestyle, there has been an imbalance within these relationships that has devalued America's culture around food. In recent times, there has been an emergence of people, communities and organizations who want to revitalize America's food culture through farmer's markets, CSAs, personal gardens, and community workshops surrounding food education. I argue that by rebalancing these four relationships, we can create a more beneficial relationship encompassing America's identity with food.

Gregory McDorman
History

The Mesopotamian Campaign: the British Blunder for Baghdad
Sponsored By: Alison Fletcher

World War I saw fighting on every corner of Europe. From the western trenches to the Italian Alps and from the eastern fields to the sands of the Middle East. The British, in particular, fought against the Ottoman Empire throughout the war. From Fall of 1914 to the Spring of 1917, British Expeditionary Forces attempted to capture the Mesopotamian region of the Ottoman Empire. Though there would be early success on the ground, the issues in the command structure, logistical fallacies, and unprepared officers led to a bloody campaign resulting in failure and the largest mass surrender of Imperial troops until Singapore in World War II. This presentation will outline the progression from minor victories to horrible failure on the Mesopotamian Front and discuss where things went wrong. I will also discuss what the British military learned from their loss and how they retooled their strategy for their second attempt at capturing the region.

Christopher McLimans
Biology

Comparative Genomics of Hydrocarbon Degrading Microbes
Sponsored By: Regina Lamendella

A major concern with the Deepwater Horizon well blow-out that spilled more than 4.1 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico in spring/summer 2010 was the fate of the oil following the leak. From the blow out site, a large underwater plume of oil and natural gasses leaked into the gulf.  While it is known that certain bacteria have the ability to degrade hydrocarbons, the contribution by specific members of the microbial community towards degradation is largely unknown. In this study biotraps were place at different depth in the gulf near the location of the blowout to enrich for hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from these biotraps and their genomes were sequenced using a combination of Illumina and PacBio sequencing platforms at the Joint Genome Institute.  High quality draft genomes were retrieved for eight isolates. The sequenced genomes were assembled and annotated using Integrated Microbial Genomes and functional genomic analysis was completed with the KEGG database to examine the functional genes that provide the capability for hydrocarbon degradation. The data gained from the Ahrensia, Alcanivorax, Colwellia, Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, and Tenacibaculum genomes were evaluated for common pathways and genes for that relate to hydrocarbon degradation ability. Additionally, two of the bacteria (Ahrensia and Tenacibaculum) were explored as novel degraders that were not previously known to degrade hydrocarbons. Ultimately, each of these bacteria were capable of degrading oil in some fashion, but differences between what each could degrade were present.

DaVon Mitchell
Sociology

Breaking the Silence: The Psychology of Collective Identity
Sponsored By: Cynthia deVries

The Residual Effects of Trauma (RET) in racial/ethnic populations that suffered a historically traumatic event (i.e. Slavery, Holocaust, Historical Genocides, etc.) make themselves apparent through a host of physical and social responses to the social conditions created by that traumatic event, including Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety/Depression Disorders. These negative psychological effects express themselves in the social lives of minority populations just as negatively as the psychological effects that caused the trauma resulting in factors such as poverty, substance abuse, unemployment, and increased suicide rate. Through the lens of identity and lived experiences, specifically the component of locus of control, the extant research explores how the adverse psychological trauma in the Black community expresses itself, in part, as the social problems in the Black community.



The existing literature demonstrates that one result of the historical trauma resulting from psychological struggle with an identity determined during the historically traumatic event [slavery] perpetuated inter-generational distress through the social systems slavery generated, giving those systems control over the Black community's collective identity.



Through the use of a pilot questionnaire facilitating a process of self-education, respondents will examine their own loci. Then through the impetus for this self education process, I will have built a foundation for a different psychological response to the traumatic event by creating a space to move the locus of control from external to internal, promoting self-definition of the identity.



The goal of the research is to demonstrate how a process of self-education of cultural heritage alters the locus of control, thus contributing to creating a process of self-definition creating an avenue to protect individuals against the inter-generational, cyclical nature of historical trauma and its effects. The process described hopes to offer insight to clinicians treating patients in the black community exhibiting negative psychological effects of inter-generational trauma.

DaVon Mitchell
Sociology

Seeds Project
Sponsored By: Cynthia deVries
Presenting with:
  • Smith, Tyler
  • Cachon, Xavier
  • Welling, Tommi
  • Pham, Kristine
  • Galbraith, Steven
  • , Sociology Senior Seminar Students

Through the use of deep personal questioning (in the form of a video interview) regarding our personal stories of diversity, our project hopes to create a space to shift the paradigm of diversity away from the thin line definition of diversity that often includes patterns of tokenism. This presentation serves as a model to examine the identities we (the 2017 cohort of Sociology Senior Seminar) hold within ourselves, which we will explore through an activity investigating the components that form our diverse identities (Major Identity Markers).

Brittany Mlynek
Multimedia Technology Strategies

Establishing an online presence for a rural business: Creating a congruency between Internet strategies and brand to enhance audience reach
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

Online communities have blossomed into what they are today through the use of various Internet strategies. With this creative project, I design a strong online marketing presence for a small, rural business, which I implement and assess. This project includes research on existing social media business plans, target market research of rural geographic areas, branding strategies, and the differences between an online and offline presence. To achieve the highest reach possible, I analyze the demographics and contextual constraints of the audience for this small business, in conjunction with their mission statement, to determine the best attainable strategy. Working with the company owner, I use the details and values of the company in order to create an online marketing plan that will produce the highest success rate of reach and engagement. Additionally, I analyze types of online media to determine effective congruency with the business’ offline content. The online marketing plan caters to a specific demographic allowing for strong communication between the company’s’ online presence and the target audience. Congruency is established between the offline and online presence of the small rural business. The implementation of these Internet strategies calls for three online developments: social media, a website, and the use of video to reach the target audience. I argue that engagement through the use of a unique brand, both online and offline, will create cohesive communication between customers and the business. To assess this project, success is determined by the analytics of engagement shown through social media, website traffic, and media views. Constraints in measuring success include local economy, seasonal demographics, and limited time of the project.



 

Megan Moroney
Marketing Analytics

A Statistical Analysis of Students' Satisfaction with Juniata College
Sponsored By: Ann Echols
Presenting with:
  • Do, Sean
  • Gao, Ruinan

We are conducting a survey to analyze students' level of satisfaction with different aspects at Juniata College. We are sending out an online survey to students at Juniata asking them their responses to a variety of questions. We will analyze their responses using statistical techniques and report the findings in our presentation and in a written manner.

Alexis Morrissey
Bioinformatics

The role of translational efficiency in the regulation of Ty1 retrotransposition in yeast
Sponsored By: Jill Keeney

Retrotransposons are genetic elements that form a virus-like particle after translation in order to insert their sequence into other parts of the genome via a cDNA intermediate. These genetic elements are found in all eukaryotic organisms and may play a role in adding genetic variation. Ty1 is the most frequently found retrotransposon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In our study, we observed a statistically significant increase in the retrotransposition of Ty1 when the gene FMS1 was overexpressed. The FMS1 encoded amine oxidase catalyzes the reaction that forms the polyamine spermidine from spermine. Spermidine is then used for the post-translational modification of the elongation factor eIF5A. The retrotransposon Ty1-H3 contains three polyproline motifs (3 or more prolines in a row). In order to find the relative importance of this finding, we constructed a Java program that analyzed the number of times each protein in the S. cerevisiae proteome contained a polyproline motif. We found that less than 1% of yeast proteins contained 3 or more of these motifs. Using these results and the BiNGO extension of Cytoscape, we were also able to construct a gene ontology map of the proteins with three or more of these motifs. Viral related GO terms had significantly low p-values to the magnitude 10x-5 showing that transposons were overrespresented in this group of proline-rich proteins. Using an immunoblot on wildtype and temperature sensitive eIF5A strains, we were additionally able to see the effect eIF5A functionality had on Ty1 protein concentration in yeast cells. Because the method of replication used by Ty1 is very similar to retroviruses like HIV, this research may give rise to more information about the replication of retroviral elements in general.

Ryan Mull
Political Economy

The Politics and Economics of the Commercial Aviation Industry
Sponsored By: J Barlow

Since the deregulation of the commercial aviation industry in the late 1970s, American airlines have made significant changes to their business models in response to evolving political and economic conditions, both domestically and internationally. As the barriers to entry have been reduced for competitors, companies have merged together, completely reorganized their fleets and route networks in order to enhance efficiency, and implemented other cost-cutting measures, all in the name of keeping up with the others. As it stands now, legacy carriers, namely American Airlines, Delta Airlines, and United Airlines, face new challenges stemming from Norwegian Airlines, which is trying to expand its operations within the United States, and an ever-decreasing supply of available airport infrastructure to support all parties. The incoming Trump Administration has an important question to answer in the coming months: what role should it play in regulating this, if any? Based on the analysis of articles reported by both American and Europeans, journals written by multinational scholars and observers, press releases from government bodies and private airlines, interviews with various figures involved in the industry, and economic theories, models, and graphs, I propose a form of “neo-regulation.” In such an initiative, the Trump Administration would be able to juggle its interests in promoting a free market, but also protecting American carriers, their employees, and average consumers. The industry as a collective is on the precipice of radical change, but through careful legislation, President Trump can and should ensure that everything advances smoothly. This essay explains the best means to execute and enact neo-regulative policies. 

Bradley Murphy
International Politics and Chinese Studies

Power Dominates Law in the South China Sea Disputes
Sponsored By: J Barlow

International law is a difficult topic to examine. While there are numerous benefits to having international laws and organizations established to help facilitate interactions between nations, governments, businesses, etc. on an international level, I believe these goals fall short of reality. Now more than ever, a nation’s power- both militarily and economically- dominate international laws and norms. Power determines a nation’s ability to enforce its will on other nations, and while some nations might use their powers to support international law, other nations use their power to improve their position and work around international law. I believe this issue is becoming more apparent in the South China Sea disputes because of the United States’ emergence onto the scene. The disputes over the islands located in the South China Sea have shown the emergence in the use of military power as opposed to dialogue as the primary method in handling difficult negotiations between nations especially when examining the interactions between China and the United States.

Rebecca Naugle
Biology (pre-med)

A Journey through the Life of Levi Branham
Sponsored By: Amanda Page

My Life and Travels by Levi Branham is a slave narrative based in the late 1850s in Georgia. Unlike the majority of slave narratives, Levi was treated with a more luxurious life than other slaves would have likely experienced. He was considered privileged at the time from his "caring" masters' treatment toward him, which is certainly unique.
Through my presentation, I will uncover the underlying truth behind why Branham felt the need to write his story and what there is to learn from it, with a major highlight on the role of the KKK, which may have been a compelling cause for Branham to write his narrative around age 70. With this, I will conduct research on the time period and what outside factors there were that could have influenced his "perfect life." This will help show what influenced Branham to share his story. I will also highlight the role of the Georgian Ku Klux Klan at the time, as Levi mentions this group periodically and the terror they caused. I will also research certain texts from the Bible and the meaning behind these since many of these texts are mentioned in the book, but not explained. This will help show Levi's purpose to write the book.

Stephanie Njeru
Global Health Communication

How do Kenyan women living in diaspora shape their sexual reproductive health through narrative?
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

Sexual reproductive health (SRH) is a topic that can be difficult for anyone in any cultural context to explore and investigate. Because sex is often a taboo in many cultures, the information that girls receive only through media may not be medically accurate and can lead to negative sexual reproductive health outcomes. The main sources of SRH information in Kenyan culture are customs (i.e., lessons during initiation rites) family members, the Christian church, and government or NGO programs aimed at reducing sexually transmitted diseases, particularly HIV/AID rates. Living in the US diaspora, these Kenyan women must align their previous narratives on SRH with US cultural health narratives. Previous research has mainly focused on the socio-cultural messages that affect the SRH knowledge of women as well as the effectiveness of various programs in preventing risky behavior. This research project uses semi-structured interviews to elicit narratives of Kenyan women's SRH experience. The research questions I aim to answer are: What are the sources of sexual reproductive health information for Kenyan women? What information and fears are revealed in the stories women tell? Due to the time constraints of this project, 3 interviews of Kenyan women living in NJ, USA are conducted. Using Fisher's narrative methodology, this research explores the narrative rationality of these women's stories using his criteria of completeness and truthfulness. Although results cannot be generalized for all Kenyan women, the findings give insight into what sources are most influential and how these sources combine to create SRH meanings and realities. With such an understanding, health communication practitioners can create more relevant and effective health messages, campaigns, and programs.

Amy Orner
Museum Studies/Art History

Judith of Bethulia: Deceitful Seductress or Chaste Savior
Sponsored By: Karen Rosell

The Apocryphal story of Judith involves courage, deception, murder, and salvation. Through her feminine wiles, the grace of God, and the swift severing of the general's head, the widowed Jewish heroine saves her town from being ravaged by the brutal Assyrian general, Holofernes. While some see Judith's achievement as the result of licentious behavior and deceit, others draw inspiration from her bravery and self-sacrifice in the face of danger. The story of Judith's triumph over evil has been depicted frequently throughout the history of art, primarily by male artists. From the Renaissance to the Baroque time periods, however, there was a shift in how the story of Judith was presented; this was accompanied by one of the first female artist's portrayal of the subject matter, that of Artemisia Gentileschi. During the Renaissance, painters focused on scenes either preceding or directly following the beheading of Holofernes, while in the Baroque era they featured the act of decapitation, with all of the accompanying emotion and fervor inherent in that style. The artists' portrayals of Judith-whether seductress or heroine-depended on their ability to identify and empathize with a particular character in the story. Aided by primary research and analysis, I will compare the Judith compositions of Gentileschi-both in the act of beheading Holofernes and in scenes of the aftermath-to scenes portrayed by her Baroque contemporaries, Caravaggio, Allori, and Rubens. In doing so, I hope to unveil an apparent bias towards the virtuous protector of Bethulia as she is portrayed in works by Baroque male artists. Gentileschi, on the other hand, empowers Judith.

Andrew Paterno
Politics

Human Nature, the Bible, and the effects on society
Sponsored By: J Barlow

I will be using the idea of human nature as being selfish and damaging to society. To support this, I will be using some arguments and information from Richard Dawkins's "The Selfish Gene" to explain gene behavior. I will argue against those who take verses from the Bible out of context, saying that the texts in the Bible need more than just one read of one verse to understand. I will take the teachings of the Bible and will used is as a way to combat human nature. I will be using Ara Norenzayan's book called "Big Gods" to explain psychologically how the effects that God and religion have on society as individual and societal level, which is beneficial to society.

Janet Peifer
Engineering Physics

The Effects of Eurasian Watermilfoil on Water Chemistry in Raystown Lake
Sponsored By: Sharon Yohn
Presenting with:
  • Kiely, Bridget

This study was conducted using samples taken from Raystown Lake in areas, which are highly infested by the invasive species Myriophyllum spicatum, commonly known as Eurasian Milfoil. The water chemistry of a lake ecosystem can be altered by the presence of milfoi. My research partner and I, mentored by Dr. Yohn, assistant professor of chemistry at Juniata College, collected data to investigate two hypotheses: the presence of milfoil alters the water chemistry of Raystown Lake, and the flow rate of water in the reservoir influences the previous hypothesis. We investigated pH, alkalinity, hardness, conductivity, current, and total phosphorous concentrations. Samples were collected at three locations along the reservoir, with sites in the main channel and within a dense bed of milfoil at each location. Results indicated that Eurasian Milfoil is not effecting the water chemistry of Raystown Lake.



 

Shelby Pio
Russian and International Studies

Tolstoy's Chaos and Truth from his Sevastopol Stories to War and Peace.
Sponsored By: Deborah Roney

As a young man, Lev Tolstoy fought as a Russian soldier during the Crimean War. For a period of time he was stationed at the besieged city of Sevastopol, where he gained his inspiration for his Sevastopol Stories: Sevastopol in December, Sevastopol in May and Sevastopol in August. In each story, through various relations with his characters, Tolstoy depicts to his reader the chaos that he perceives surrounding him in his atmosphere of war. At the end of each story Tolstoy develops a truth, an answer for the all-consuming madness. As Tolstoy's Sevastopol Stories progress, the chaos and truths develop into a state of near incomprehension. To Tolstoy, war and society are too senseless to perceive any order within them. However, Tolstoy by nature nevertheless sought for a universal truth amidst his surroundings. In 1866 Tolstoy began his work of War and Peace. War and Peace is a large embodiment of the chaos Tolstoy first professed in his Sevastopol Stories, while also being a structure to Tolstoy's temporary universal truth. Tolstoy succeeds in conveying the chaos and his truth to the reader through an intimate relation with his characters, which is reflective of his character development in his Sevastopol Stories.

Carl Pollard
Environmental Geology

Determining the Relationship of Land Use Practices to Sedimentation Rates in Adjacent Creeks
Sponsored By: Matthew Powell

210Pb and 7Be radioisotopes can be used to determine historical sedimentation rates on decadal and seasonal scales. In the context of remediated agricultural lands, such sedimentation rates can allow for the observance of changes in land use practices over time. Over the past ~100 years Trippe Creek watershed saw multiple changes in land use with the most recent (~20 years ago) being the implementation of US Department of Agriculture conservational programs. This study used 210Pb and 7Be analyses to examine changes in sedimentation rates in Trippe Creek. The purpose of the analysis was to determine if the implementation of conservational practices was able to lower the input of sediment into the creek. The results from the analysis were compared to 210Pb and 7Be results from nearby Goldsborough Creek where the watershed is still dominated by active agriculture. Sedimentation rates in Trippe Creek decreased within the past 20 years while sedimentation rates in Goldsborough Creek increased. This comparison appeared to indicate that the implementation of conservational practices did relate to the decrease in sedimentation rates.

Alexandra Poremba
English / Psychology Secondary Emphasis

Uncrossable Spaces
Sponsored By: Peter Goldstein

A reading of poetry that explores aspects of personal identity, especially through its relationships with natural phenomena. Writing these poems involved examining our individual and collective physical presence in the world and sometimes just listening to what our ordinary, familiar surroundings can tell us on their own. The resulting poems address questions from 'why do we prefer beauty to have limits?' to 'how do some frogs survive when their bodies freeze?'

Micaela Potter
Museum Studies/Art History

Unicorn Tapestries: Unraveling the Mystery
Sponsored By: Karen Rosell

An imaginary, peculiar horse-like creature sporting an entwined projection on its forehead, the unicorn, has appeared in art for thousands of years. In the Middle Ages, its flawless white pelt and captivating horn were associated with purity, strength, and magic. By the Renaissance era, the unicorn achieved much popularity, becoming an iconic symbol used in painting, heraldry, and tapestries. Two tapestries, The Hunt of the Unicorn and The Lady and the Unicorn were created in the beginning of the 16th century. Though created around the same time, they express two profoundly different narratives linked together through a common symbol- the unicorn.
While considerable research has been conducted for both tapestry series, many details remain a mystery. Historians and scholars have contributed their own interpretations to the works, analyzing the hidden imagery, allegories and styles of the woven artworks in their attempts to provide context. Yet uncertainly lingers. To more fully understand these tapestries, it is crucial to examine scholars' various methodologies and explanations, and what clues lay within. I intend to help unravel the mystery of these woven works by exploring these unresolved questions.

Bridget Redpath
History and Museum Studies

Development and Advancement of the JCMA
Sponsored By: Kathryn Blake

Since the foundation of our beloved college museum in 1998, the JCMA has been a home for the fine arts, promoting visual and cultural literacy and serving as a source of inspiration for students, staff, and the local community. With the completion of the new Integrated Media and Studio Arts building scheduled for this summer and the relocation of the art studios, the museum will find itself with open space in the lower floor and a third wing on the main level, allowing for expansion and revised use of space. In order to assist in the promotion of the museum on campus and in our surrounding community, I developed methods that would not only provide a possible steady source of revenue for the museum, but would serve as an advertisement program to promote the works in our collection and encourage more people to support the fine arts here at Juniata. My research on current museum usage by members of the Juniata community will help to determine how the museum is going to change to ensure it remains a positive, useful, and influential resource for this campus. This presentation will outline the results of the JCMA Usage survey and analyze the primary results and the future of the JCMA Poster Project to assist in the development and advancement of the Juniata College Museum of Art. 

Krystyana Richter
Engineering Physics

Tethered remote underwater vehicle prototype for observing marine life
Sponsored By: Matthew Beaky

Underwater vehicles are able to explore where humans cannot easily do so.  In particular, in regions of  extreme temperatures or extreme pressures, the images and video captured on these machines allows scientists to explore marine life. Underwater vehicles come in two distinct styles, remotely operated or automated, the former generally used for specific searches and the latter for surveying. The simplest of these in a foreign environment is a remotely operated vehicle(ROV). The operator controls it via either a tether or a wireless connection. As waters get deeper and saltier a wireless connection will degrade and a tether is preferred. We aim to present the design, production and operation of a tethered ROV nicknamed the “Damselfish”. The “Damselfish” was built to be carried to and from an operation site by a single person with the purpose of exploring up to 80 feet below the surface.  A camera in the “Damselfish” is directly linked to a computer that will allow the operator to see marine life in their natural environment while allowing the operator greater safety from potential problems such as decompression sickness or hypothermia.



 

Allison Rismondo
History and Museum Studies

Impact of Luzerne County in the American Civil War
Sponsored By: James Tuten

My presentation is about how the soldiers from Luzerne County Pennsylvania made an impact on the American Civil War.  It will primarily focus on each individual soldier and his journey through the war.  This journey will show how each soldier made some form of overall impact in the war.  

Sarah Roberts
Mathematics

Patterns in Fractals: The Multibrot & Julia Sets
Sponsored By: Kimberly Roth

The Mandelbrot and Julia sets are two of the world's most famous fractals.  The Mandelbrot and Julia sets are formed by iterating $z^2+c$, varying c and z, respectively.  The shape of a Julia set, which depends on the constant c, can be predicted based on where c is in the Mandelbrot set.  The characteristic bulbs of the Mandelbrot set can be described by a period, given by the Farey sequence.  We explore high-order variations of the Mandelbrot set called the Multibrot set which iterates $z^n +c$.  We look for patterns that carry over from the Mandelbrot set and search for new ones by investigating the Julia sets associated with the Multibrot sets.

Sarah Roberts
Physics

PCA Applied to Uranium Ore Shipments
Sponsored By: James Borgardt
Presenting with:
  • Anthony , Adam

Nuclear forensics involves the collection, analysis, and assessment of radioactive evidence using physical, chemical, and isotopic signatures to infer the origin and history of the material. We explore the applications of Principle Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical method of reducing the relevant number of differentiating characteristics in a data set, to uranium ore samples.  There are a large number of variables that describe the makeup of uranium ore. PCA can be used to consolidate the data and  simplify the problem.  Using PCA, we show that it's possible to trace a sample of unknown origin back to its original mine and discuss the confidence interval of our measurements.

Bruno Rosa
Computer Science

Quantum Computing: The Catalyst of a Computing Revolution
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer
Presenting with:
  • Gaynor, Matthew

Matt and I will be presenting on the topic of quantum computing and the effects that it will have on everyday life as it is integrated into society. We will be discussing generally what quantum computing is, how it will effect us and some specifics about it (security issues, long-term goals, etc..)

Devin Ryman
Social Policy Studies

Her Body, God's Choice: The Impact of the Catholic Church in State Abortion Policies
Sponsored By: J Barlow

The object of my thesis is to determine how state abortion policies are influenced by the Catholic Church, focusing on states with a high Catholic population. The three states in which I analyze are California, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania. I do this by recapping the Roe v. Wade (1973) court case and considering how the Catholic Church's position on abortion has changed over time. I then find certain correlations between the language of the state policies and the language used by the Catholic Church. 

Robert Shaw
Politics

Private Military Companies: The Modern Privateeers
Sponsored By: J Barlow

The Private Military Company is a growing existence that has turned the roles of combatant and security into one of the most lucrative and secretive industries in the world. The number and scale of PMCs have grown exponentially since the start of the unofficial war on terror. Their forms of employment are as numerous as they are secretive for every known contract PMCs take there are dozens that are left unknown or unreported. While their prominence stems mostly from the post start of the Iraq war in 2003, the PMC has existed long before as early as the 1960's with the first formally register PMC WatchGuard International in 1967. This aspect of privatizing military related services spread to not only combat roles, but intelligence services as well. I am going to be examining the origin of PMCs and what factors of the modern era have made their usage become so appealing to governments and corporations alike. I then like to examine how the growth of their role in the modern era has shaped the international perception on their usage along with the differences in international law/ state law regarding their usage.

Katharine Shelledy
Biology

Differential gene expression in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and hydraulic fracturing in western Pennsylvania
Sponsored By: Vincent Buonaccorsi

Hydraulic fracturing is widespread in Pennsylvania, and it poses both an opportunity to natural gas companies and a threat to associated ecosystems. Justified environmental concerns about hydraulic fracturing for natural gas have related to water quality, biodiversity shifts, and species decline. One species that has shown moderate decline related to hydraulic fracturing is Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Brook Trout function as a key indicator species in determining Pennsylvanian stream integrity and are therefore an important study subject for analyzing the impacts of hydraulic fracturing. This study examines the relationship between unconventional natural gas development and gene expression in Brook Trout. Transcriptomes from Brook Trout from impacted and control streams were compared via an RNAseq bioinformatics pipeline to determine whether and how differential expression would occur. Converted RNA was sequenced for a total of 38 Brook Trout from 12 different headwater streams, sampled during June and July of 2015. Multiple iterations in the RNAseq analysis with different parameters revealed a lack of significant deviations between Brook Trout transcriptomes in regions that displayed infrastructural development for hydraulic fracturing compared with control regions. This presentation represents work conducted for a senior’s thesis in biology.

Anna Small
Math with Computer Science Secondary Emphasis

The Mathematics of the Flip and Horseshoe Shuffle
Sponsored By: Catherine Stenson

The flip shuffle and the horseshoe shuffle are newly explored ways of shuffling cards. Both shuffles are performed by splitting a deck of cards into two piles. The bottom pile is flipped over and the cards are interlaced in an alternating pattern. The flip shuffle cares whether the cards are face up or face down, whereas the horseshoe shuffle does not. We use several new representations for these shuffles to explore the following questions: How many flip or horseshoe shuffles does it take for a card to return to its initial position? What is the minimum number of shuffles to get a card to the top of the deck? What properties are unique to decks of size 2^k? What are some relationships between the flip shuffle and the horseshoe shuffle?

Sarah Spencer
Art History

War on the Wall: Graffiti Art, The Arab Spring and Women
Sponsored By: Karen Rosell

An ongoing revolution spurred by the upheaval of a number of Middle Eastern despotic regimes, The Arab Spring spread across countries, and inspired the involvement of thousands of citizens, the majority of whom were women. Contrary to most Western and traditional Middle Eastern ideals held about the position of women in society, one finds these females on the frontlines of the movement. Out of this burgeoning gender presence, the activism of female artists likewise increases. The demand for political and social reform is a subject explored by artists in their work, with graffiti as their chosen medium. Revolutionary graffiti thus thrives throughout The Spring. In their artwork, women confront viewers with honest imagery regarding an array of topics, including women’s rights, politics, and religion.



The powerful and brilliant images depicted by Arab female artists, juxtaposed against The Spring itself, have revolutionized how the rest of the world views Arab women. Because of the perpetual violence of the Arab Spring—especially against women—one would assume that female graffiti artists would be intimidated to display their work on city walls. However these remarkable women were not. I intend to show that young talented female graffiti artists and the work they create reveals their strength, creativity, and perseverance. Through my research and analysis of their artwork, I will explore the ways in which female artists revolutionized the perceptions of Middle Eastern women.

Alexis Stone
Politics w/ a Secondary Emphasis in Economics

The Pursuit of Perfection: Hidden Detriments of the Body Positivity Movement
Sponsored By: J Barlow

The Body Positivity Campaign has swept not only the United States, but also nations all over the world. In attempts to reshape what society deems as beautiful, numerous organizations, both for profit and non-profit, have created campaigns to promote acceptance of all body types-even those which may be considered unhealthily obese. The research conducted on this movement looks at a few different things: first, what is the history of the Body Positivity Movement and who was it originally intended to help? Secondly, the research evaluates the adverse affects that the campaign has caused for individuals recovering from or living with eating disorders. Third, the research evaluates the medical adversities that accompany promoting being able to indulge in any diet and embrace any body type without concerning oneself with the health repercussions. Lastly, the research proposes a reevaluation of the Body Positivity Campaign and argues for a restructuring of the movement all together. Data and statistics are pulled directly from numerous for-profit and non-profit websites, medical, sociological and psychological academic texts. The aim of this research is to emphasize that the true goal to promoting body positivity should be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and whatever body accompanies such a lifestyle. This paper will review an array of organizations participating in the Body Positivity Campaign movement, and evaluate which organizations are going about presenting their messages in a beneficial manner, which organizations are not and what can be done to redirect the movement in a way that will serve its true purpose and impact individuals in a positive way.

Nicholas Terz
History

Alexander Burnes: A Great Game Perspective
Sponsored By: Alison Fletcher

Alexander Burnes, born in Scotland in 1805, served as an officer in the army of the British East India Company. Burnes became one of the earlier players in the conflict later referred to as the Great Game, the name given to the struggle between Britain and Russia over control of Central Asia during the nineteenth century. This conflict was carried out by lone agents, dispatched into the wilderness of Central Asia to spy out the terrain and secret mountain passes through which an army might march. Burnes wrote two published accounts of his journeys, Travels to Bokhara and Cabool: A Personal Narrative. Both were well received in Europe and helped propel him into a position to influence British policy in Central Asia. Indeed, during the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-41), Burnes provided key intelligence for the British and acted as an interface between the British and Afghans.

Madison Thompson
Design Studies

Participatory and Integrated Design Research
Sponsored By: Ryan Gibboney
Presenting with:
  • Cheng, Jenny
  • Angeline, Emily
  • Scholten, Lindsay

This panel discussion will focus on the process of creation of human centered design through the integrated media arts program. Four different projects will be presented on design through client based research outside of the classroom. Works includes a booklet and videos for the Center for Undergraduate Research and Creative Inquiry (Angeline and Cheng), signage and a visual identity for Sparks Farm that works with the new Juniata brand (Thompson), and intuitive wayfinding in Brumbaugh Academic Center (Scholten). Students will explain the process of research, working with clients, and reflect on their individual creative processes. 

Anvy Tran
International Politics

The Status of Vietnamese Women in Contemporary Vietnam
Sponsored By: Emil Nagengast

After Vietnam's reunification in 1975, the North's model of the centrally planned economy was implemented throughout the country. As agricultural and industrial productions were collectivized, its effects stagnated the economy and impoverished the people as 80% of the population and 70% of the labor force were agricultural laborers, but were was unable to produce enough food to feed the nation. To vitalize the economy, Vietnam implemented the Doi Moi reforms which transitioned the country to a market economy in 1986. As a result, Vietnam's economy experienced rapid economic growth and development, transforming Vietnam from a poor to a lower middle-class income country. In this presentation, I analyze the status of women since Doi Moi. I argue that while Doi Moi initially disadvantaged women as they are exposed to free market forces without sufficient governmental support, gender equality in contemporary Vietnam is steadly improving due to the government's passage of legal frameworks and the practical support of the international community. However, the persistence of gender norms remains a major obstacle to overcoming inequality. Using the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals as a standard of measure for the status of women in contemporary Vietnam, I contend that the status of women has improved, but that further attention must be given to gender equality indicators. While the MDGs measure aspects of equality, it is limited in measuring gender equality in the Vietnamese context because addressing gender norms, a major contributor to Vietnamese gender inequality, is outside the scope of the MDGs.

Raymond Turro
Chemistry

A Path to Chiral Aziridines Through Copper Hydride Reductions of 2H-Azirines
Sponsored By: John Unger

Currently, there are several ways to access chiral aziridines; however many of these methods require expensive catalysts or are limited in their substrate scope. This body of research investigates the synthesis of chiral aziridines through a copper-catalyzed asymmetric reduction of pro-chiral aryl 2H-azirines. This report describes the synthesis of 2H-azirine starting materials from commercially-available styrenes, and discusses the development and optimization of their chiral reduction using nonracemically-ligated copper hydride.

Nikea Ulrich
Biology, German

A Temporal Investigation of Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction Impact on Aquatic Microbial Communities in Northwestern, Pennsylvania: A Five-year Assessment
Sponsored By: Regina Lamendella

Unconventional natural gas extraction, like most industrial activities, can lead to contamination and impact environmental health. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (fracking) extraction procedures have become increasingly present in Pennsylvania, in which a majority of the subterraneous gas-rich Marcellus Shale play is located. The potential for major long-term environmental impacts to nearby headwater stream ecosystems and the microbial assemblages that inhabit them is still incompletely understood. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to characterize the microbial community structure of water, sediment, bryophyte, and biofilm samples from 31 headwater stream sites in northwestern Pennsylvania exhibiting different histories of fracking activity over the course of five years (2012-2016). Approximately 18 million 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from a total of 189 samples. Microbial community structure across all years did not display significant changes in presence and abundance. However, at lower ranks of community structure, fracking activity appeared to act as an environmental selector for certain members. For example, taxa within the Acidomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales orders, putative acidophilic and methanotrophic populations, were greater than 2 log-fold more abundant in MSA+ streams compared to MSA- streams. This study highlighted potential sentinel taxa indicative of changes to stream water quality within headwater aquatic ecosystems from nascent gas extraction activity. Identifying the presence and functionality of microbial consortia associated with streams impacted by long-term fracking operations will provide a clearer understanding of the natural microbial community’s response and inform in situ remediation strategies.

Lavinia Unverdorben
Biology

The Effect of pH on the Hatching Rate and Size of Salmincola edwardsii (gill lice)
Sponsored By:

The brook trout (Salvelnius fontinalis) is an important indicator species of high water quality and ecosystem health. This Pennsylvania native species thrives in cool and clean water but has experienced a decline in the past decades due to a number of anthropogenic stressors. A very recent threat to this species is the arrival of the parasitic copepod Salmincola edwardsii, also known as gill lice, that specifically attaches to the gills of brook trout, presumably decreasing fitness. I aim to better understand how pH levels in stream water can affect the survivorship, hatching rate, and size of this parasite. To study these gill lice, eggs from gravid females will be placed in 3 different pH treatments of 5, 7, and 9 for 10 days and observed until hatching. Understanding how pH affects the hatching and size of gill lice is important in the context of active conservation of the brook trout species. Most streams in Pennsylvania in which brook trout are found are acidic and understanding survivorship of gill lice at varying pH levels could help in determining the long-term effects of gill lice on brook trout.

Cameron Westerlund
Physics

Determining Index of Refraction with Michelson Interferometer
Sponsored By: Matthew Beaky

Interferometers are often used to make highly sensitive measurements in a large variety of applications. With compact design, interferometer can fit on a tabletop and could be used to measure the wavelength of laser light, while large interferometers on the scale of several kilometers are used to observe gravitational waves in recent research. One particular interesting design is the Michelson-Morley interferometer, which enables the detection of changes in index of refraction of a gas. We will present the design, assembly, and demonstration of an interferometer with a gas handling apparatus to determine the index of refraction of air at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

Quinn Westlake
History of Art and Cultural Analysis

The Glorious Muslim Time Machine: Fine Arts Progress in a Time of Nostalgia
Sponsored By: Karen Rosell

Moroccan scholar, sociologist, and feminist, Fatema Mernissi addresses the mal du present, the condition of cultural stagnation, but reframes it to reference the Muslim community of West Asia. In doing so, she recalls fellow Moroccan critic Muhammed Abed al Jabri s theories in The Formation of Arab Reason, and expands them, purporting a communal focus of a rich Islamic legacy through a feminist lens. Rather than continuing an analysis through this lens, Mernissi s sociological theories can instead be applied to the Muslim art world, which leads to a determination of whether the mal du present can be found in the fine arts. Further analyzing popular motifs, mediums, styles, and characteristics in Islamic Golden Age art, dating from the 8th through the 13th centuries, as compared to three contemporary Muslim artists' work allows for assessment of cultural stagnation. This comparison, when coupled with analysis of the writings of Mernissi and al Jabri provides a multi-faceted examination of the artistic evolution from past to present.
West Asia is no longer the center for Islamic arts. People have been displaced, Islam has expanded across the globe. and the Islamic identity is much more nuanced and complex than it was during the Golden Age. While the mal du present is always linked to those who continually look back to the past for inspiration in the present, it can no longer confine artists who intend to forge ahead.

Maris Wilson
Environmental Studies

Waste Not: A Study of the History & Impact of Manure Management in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed
Sponsored By: Dennis Johnson

Agricultural run-off is the largest contributor of pollution and environmental degradation in the Chesapeake Bay. One of the most effective ways of decreasing the elevated levels of phosphorus and nitrogen is through the implementation of conservation measures on farms, such as manure management plans. This study looks at the history of manure management as a conservation measure dictated by the EPA and evaluates the current state of these plans in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, specifically focusing on Pennsylvania. Historical documents from The Chesapeake Bay Program were collected to assess the evolution of information available to the public. This information was compared to current figures and statistics from the Chesapeake Bay Foundation and Penn State’s Agricultural Extension programs to see how conservation programs have developed over the years. Examples of farm management plans and the basic requirements for these plans were provided by the Huntingdon County Conservation District. The information will be presented using maps from GIS software and PA One Stop.

Kang Yang
Engineering Physics

Robotic arm control through human arm movement
Sponsored By: Matthew Beaky

A robotic arm is a programmable robot manipulator that can perform tasks similar to what human arms can do. In many heavy industries, robotic arms are used because of their great accuracy and strength. Depending on the needs, a robotic arm can do work autonomously, or it can be controlled manually by technicians. Today, robotic arms are in demand for both industrial and home applications, and this trend seems to be growing in the long-term. Therefore, a robotic arm that simulates the movements of a human arm is constructed. The movements of a human arm are acquired by accelerometers (position sensors) and sent to a microcontroller (computer on a chip), which then controls the robotic arm to imitate the same movements. The design and construction of the robotic arm will be described, and the actual arm will be demonstrated.

Aaron Zack
History and Museum Studies

"Attack Everything": Royal Flying Corps Officers at the Battle of the Somme
Sponsored By: Alison Fletcher

The Battle of the Somme lasted from July 1 through November 18, 1916. While the ground battle has featured prominently in much scholarly literature, far less attention has been given to the air battle. The Royal Flying Corps fought to maintain their aerial superiority in order to better support the infantry. This paper argues that the officers of the Royal Flying Corps served in a variety of roles based on what planes they and their squadron used. To do so, it examines the memoirs of three officers, Cecil Lewis, Frederick Libby, and Gwilym Lewis, in order to create an understanding of how different officers of the Royal Flying Corps experienced the Battle of the Somme.

Kent Zelesky
Communication Mediation

Childhood In Ruins: Why Disney is Destructive
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer
Presenting with:
  • Brock, Evan

In a world filled with media violence, and the multitude of sources this concept stems from, one of the guiltiest at continually perpetuating this destructive thought process is the Disney company.  Specifically, we examined older Disney films such as Snow White and Cinderalla, up to more recent adaptions of stories such as Frozen and Moana.  In all cases, we were looking at three specific ideas which repeatedly reappear in Disney productions regardless of how much time has passed in the growth of the Disney movie empire.  Those being the influences of normalization when creating a fantasy world.  Another aspect that was observed was understanding Disney’s tendency to escalate their violent tendencies from film to film especially if there was an original movie which eventually was spun off into multiple sequels, i.e. the Cars films.  The final piece that we inspected was the Disney’s simplified views on morality.  Our research consisted of watching a variety of Disney films from different time periods, and drawing conclusions based on our criteria mentioned above.  Throughout the course of our research we came to the following conclusions from the first Disney film Snow White up through Disney’s renaissance period in the 1990s Disney was reluctant to let go of its film making formula which promoted the continuation of a violent narrative.  However, starting with Frozen and now Moana it is clear that Disney is slowly starting to move away from its long held movie making formula and attempting a different style to tell their narratives.In a world filled with media violence, and the multitude of sources this concept stems from, one of the guiltiest at continually perpetuating this destructive thought process is the Disney company.  Specifically, we examined older Disney films such as Snow White and Cinderalla, up to more recent adaptions of stories such as Frozen and Moana.  In all cases, we were looking at three specific ideas which repeatedly reappear in Disney productions regardless of how much time has passed in the growth of the Disney movie empire.  Those being the influences of normalization when creating a fantasy world.  Another aspect that was observed was understanding Disney’s tendency to escalate their violent tendencies from film to film especially if there was an original movie which eventually was spun off into multiple sequels, i.e. the Cars films.  The final piece that we inspected was the Disney’s simplified views on morality.  Our research consisted of watching a variety of Disney films from different time periods, and drawing conclusions based on our criteria mentioned above.  Throughout the course of our research we came to the following conclusions from the first Disney film Snow White up through Disney’s renaissance period in the 1990s Disney was reluctant to let go of its film making formula which promoted the continuation of a violent narrative.  However, starting with Frozen and now Moana it is clear that Disney is slowly starting to move away from its long held movie making formula and attempting a different style to tell their narratives.

Samuel Zucker
Geology

Petrology of the Edmonds Utramafic Body in the Blueridge Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia
Sponsored By: Katharine Johanesen

The Ashe Metamorphic Suite (AMS) in the Eastern Blue Ridge Mountains contains metamorphic rocks formed and reworked during the formation of the Appalachian Mountain range. The AMS includes multiple ultramafic bodies with varying mineralogy and texture. One such body is the Edmonds body of Virginia and North Carolina. The Edmonds body is mineralogically and texturally zoned. In the most northeastern section of the body, the rocks are dominated by talc, with very small amounts of olivine. In the center of the body, olivine grains are larger and more abundant, with tremolite, talc, anthophyllite, and chlorite. Nearing the southwestern portion of the body, olivine grains are smaller and less abundant, as is talc, and contains greater amounts of tremolite and chlorite. The minerals and textures in the Edmonds could represent a gradient of varying metamorphic reaction: The northeastern to interior zone quenched a higher temperature assemblage with lower fluid content while the southwestern zone, in contact with cooler and more fluid-rich rock, was altered by retrograde metamorphism.