Nathaniel Ulrich

Coping and Grief After Sports Injuries
Sponsored By: Lynn Cockett

The purpose of this paper is to explore the responses and coping mechanisms of athletes who due to injury, are unable to participate in the sport that has played a role in their self-identity. By using narrative interviews, I examine how injured athletes grieve the loss of their sport. In this paper, I specifically investigate the stories told by the participants because they emphasize personal experiences and their own emotions and reactions to serious injury. This project brings to light how athletes can be emotionally unprepared for life after sport.

Sophie Bell

Stranger than Fiction: The New Role of Truth in Photography
Sponsored By: Karen Rosell

As a medium, photography did not follow a smooth transition into artistic legitimacy. Though long considered subordinate to painting and sculpture, photographs held one strength that the traditional mediums did not: viewers more readily accepted them as truth. The capabilities of the medium dramatically expanded by the postmodern era, and so too have the philosophies surrounding the reality of an image. Postmodern photographers have extended and distorted the perceptions of the medium; shifting notions of truth both in their works and in societal fantasies have allowed these artists to create a new role for themselves. In the past several decades, numerous photographic series have revealed a hidden layer of the issues they address, from corporate cover-ups to failed modern romance. While some of these photographers simply create tension between the realities of their subjects and contexts, others aim to fully disrupt a constructed fantasy. Meanwhile, the benefits of assumed truth lay hidden just outside each frame.

Robert Kauffman

Characterize Field-Dependent Strength and Orientation of Superparamagnetic Bead Magnetization
Sponsored By: Stephanie Lauback

The ability to precisely control the spatial and temporal movements of superparamagnetic beads has been advantageous in progressing the fields of nanotechnology, physics and microbiology. The applications of these beads range from cell manipulation and transportation to the assembling of microconstructs and lattices. Despite the wide range of these discoveries, the nature of the superparamagnetic bead magnetization has not been fully investigated. The magnetization of a single superparamagnetic MyOne Dynabead is studied by exploring how the individual magnetic dipoles within the bead respond to a changing magnetic field. The challenge of differentiating the rotation of small spherically symmetric beads was overcome by attaching a single bead to a stiff DNA microrod, in which one end of the rod is bound to the surface. The components of the magnetization are investigated for individual beads by apply constant in-plane external magnetic fields between 10 Oe and 100 Oe in four orthogonal directions and observing the bead position. Utilizing the angular distribution from the beads position, the energy landscape, torque and the strength and orientation of the magnetic moment of a single bead are determined as a function of magnetic field.

Olivia Kruse

Preference for a hypermasculine leader: Validating a new measure
Sponsored By: Philip Dunwoody

This study validates a measure of preference for a hypermasculine leader. A vast swathe of evidence indicates that preference for a hypermasculine leader is connected to authoritarianism and SDO, however political psychology literature has yet to validate a measure of this construct. Our HMLP proved to be correlated with validated measures of authoritarianism, SDO, and variables reliably predicted by both (support for anti-democratic policies). In addition, HMLP provided unique variance multiple linear regression equations predicting the criterion variable of general anti-democratic policy support (GADP), indicating its reliability and validity as a measure. Equipped with this validated scale, we used this study as an opportunity to delve deeper into the relationship that exists between authoritarianism, SDO, and HMLP. Interestingly, our findings indicate that HMLP may measure the overlap between authoritarianism and SDO as constructs: traditional preference for hierarchy. The development of this tool will allow for future research to unpack the relationship between these constructs.

Maribeth Ault

Brooke Ross

Evaluation of Nesting Success as a Function of Land Use in Pennsylvania Turkeys
Sponsored By: Dennis Johnson

The Pennsylvania Game Commission provided satellite telemetry data for 280 female turkeys that were banded between 2/17/2010 and 7/31/2015. Females were given a reading quality rating from 1-3. 1 indicating their telemetry transmissions were of low quality and were disregarding during this study. The remaining data consisted of all hen’s who’s readings fell within the quality rating of either a 2 or 3.  This data was analyzed to determine the preferred land use of female turkeys during the nesting season. Chesapeake Conservancy provided the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Use Data Project for Pennsylvania (updated October 2018) that was utilized during this study. While the data set included a total of 16 land use classes, 5 of these were relevant in this study: Forest, Agriculture, Mixed Open, Turf Grass, and Fractional Turf. This study will examine which of these 5 land use classes nesting hens predominantly utilize and how they differ between successful and unsuccessful nesting turkeys. 

Kim Grabes

Honors Research Presentation
Sponsored By: Lynn Cockett

As part of my year-long research project, I will present on the topic I have investigated in and the results I have found. This includes the theory of parasocial interactions, which originated from Horton and Wohl in 1956, and how this theory applies to celebrities on Snapchat. In the context of Qualitative Content Analysis, snaps from Dj Khaled, Kevin Hart and Kylie Jenner will be analyzed and the results will be discussed. 

Brian Dignazio

The Spread of East Asian Pop Culture Through ESports
Sponsored By: Douglas Stiffler

This study will focus on research done during the independent study this semester (East Asian Pop Culture). An interesting topic that was brought to light was Esports, which in recent years has been on the rise, and continues to grow drastically. This past year, twice as many people viewed the League of Legends World Championships than the Super Bowl. What does this mean for the globalization of pop culture? How ~is~ this sharing pop culture? What is ESports anyways? In a brief presentation I will try to introduce the audience to ESports, East Asian Pop Culture, and then relate the two into one larger theme. The goal is to spark interest into a larger population, and shed light on what has been going on behind the scenes in the spread of pop culture worldwide.

Claire Cohen

Essure-Towards Stricter Regulations and Safety
Sponsored By: Kathleen Jones

We live in a world dominated by innovation, which is often seen as a cornerstone of democracy.  Designing, creating, and selling medical devices is a multi-billion dollar industry.  But lax regulations, coorporate collusion and conflicts of interest have created a cesspool of devices that are unsafe and hazardous.  These devices pose a danger to the health of all citizens.  The age of medical device discovery and innovation needs to be stringently regulated.  Without a major shift in ideology and principles, millions of people are at risk for recieving devices that are unsafe.  Essure was a particular device that caused disasterous results and we need to learn from that to ensure the future safety of medical devices for everyone.  

Allison Goulden

"My gender wasn't lost on me": Women in politics in rural Pennsylvania
Sponsored By: Lynn Cockett

This qualitative research paper employs narrative interview to elicit experiences from women who have held elected office in rural Pennsylvania. Participants include a State Senator, Borough Councilwoman, Board of Education member, Borough Manager, and County Commissioner, who were all elected to office. Narrative interview was the best method to use because it is the most effective way to encourage these women to tell their stories. The questions were designed to be open ended and allow for the participants to respond freely. The interviews were then qualitatively coded to see themes that emerged from the interviews. 

Owen Baker

Using High-Throughput Sequencing to Identify Microbial Community Structure in United States Riverine Ecosystems
Sponsored By: Regina Lamendella

Microbial communities within riverine systems are dynamic and respond to and are shaped by physiochemical parameters and hydrologic characteristics. Further studying of these community responses is needed to understand how microbes play a role and can characterize the environments in which they live. Using the National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA), a survey of over 1550 streams from nine unique geographic regions of the United States, we evaluated stressors such as stream quality and urban status, all of which shape microbial communities. NRSA sampling design and field protocols led to the use of bacterial DNA extracted from water samples. Each water sample was subject to amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and subsequently sequences using the Illumina Miseq platform. After quality filtering sequence data, reads were clustered into Operational Taxonomic Units using QIIME 1.9.0 software. Taxonomy was assigned and further bioinformatic processing revealed decreased species richness as the stream size based on joining tributaries increased. This leads to communities becoming more defined and predictable as streams get larger. Significantly enriched biomarker taxa were also identified across all distinct geographic regions along with predicted enriched functional gene pathways. In geographic regions, biomarker taxa were found including the Cyanobacteria phylum enriched in the Temperate Plains region and the Bacteroidetes phylum, including the flavobacterium, in the Xeric region. In poor quality streams, an upregulation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis was observed, while in high quality streams, several xenobiotic degradation pathways were upregulated. Further assessment of microbial community structure and function will ultimately allow us to assess connections between bacterial communities and stream health. This will lead to the identity of biomarker taxa for healthy and poor streams and the resilience of ecosystems to distinct disturbances.

Fabien Delattre

Applying deep learning on the metatranscriptomic data to separate prokaryotic from eukaryotic RNA
Sponsored By: Regina Lamendella

Over the recent decade, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) has become a more reliable, affordable, and rapid process that resulted in an unprecedented amount of data available and ready for application. Currently, the study of the microbiome in humans is one of the more popular research areas within the field of biology. To conduct the metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies of prokaryotes that reside within humans, it is crucial that we subtract the prokaryotic genetic information from eukaryotic not only as a part of a sample preparation protocol but also during the post-sequencing analysis. However, this process is not time-efficient and is not always accurate. Thus, our research focuses on developing a better method that allows the sorting of metatranscriptomes more efficiently. We addressed this issue by using deep learning methods on the metatranscriptomic data.

Pablo Murillo

Cultural Learning Tour
Sponsored By: Matthew Damschroder

The Cultural Learning Tour is an abroad experience that allows students to engage and explore in a new culture. The Cultural Learning Tour helps students to become aware of cultural and social enviromental issues through different services such as education and working with others. The past couple of years, students have lived with host families in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic for their visit. During their time there, students spent time in the community of La Piedra and at Centro Guanin compliting projects such as building a park, working on a garden, creating a  basketball and etc. 

Liliane Pari Umuhoza

Senior Thesis
Sponsored By: Polly Walker

In the last two years I have been conducting a research on the aftermath of the genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda. For my senior thesis, I will am working on ways genocide survivors can be supported to be able to move forwrard. to do this, I will examine different ways survivors deal with the trauma of violent experiences using the genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda as a model. The purpose is to create a bridge-building model between trauma and recovery utilizing different academic works of literatures. I am anticipating to explore if all survivors need support to be able to move forward and if they do, what kind of support is needed? My future goal, is to make sure I use this work to educate institutions with responsibilities to support violent affacted communities, best ways to make an impacts in those communities. 

Alexander Zegarelli

How the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis Catalyzed the Hallyu Wave Giving Us K-Pop and K-Dramas
Sponsored By: Douglas Stiffler

The 1997 financial crisis in Asia left the South Korean government in a desperate position wherein they had to accept a $57 billion dollar loan. Furthermore, the government had to restructure the conglomerate chaebols and seek new avenues for the economy to perform for international expectations. Thankfully, the government found the necessary performers. Specifically, the government of South Korea saw potential market growth and penetration into the creative industries of film and music. Therefore, the government of South Korea pushed an agenda to facilitate the growth of its culture as a product by changing laws, providing better infrastructure, increase research and development of design, and rebrand chaebols. Thus, K-pop and K-dramas emerged on the international scene as a result of government incentives and reforms.

Nathan Woods

William Blake: His Life & Work
Sponsored By: Peter Goldstein

The poet and artist William Blake was considered a madman by many of his contemporaries, and his work was largely neglected during his lifetime. Today he is considered a genius in literary circles and well regarded within the visual arts. Born in London in the mid-18th century, he worked as an engraver for the entirety of his adult life.

His work strongly critiqued what he saw as the spiritually bankrupt values and implications of Englightenment thinkers as well as the Church of the day although he considered himself a Christian, and promoted the individual’s use of the imagination as of paramount importance.

An overview of his major works and signifigant life events will be discussed, as well as his influence on future generations of thinkers and artists. 

Rina Kirsch

Measuring It All in Light: Preparing to Portray the Life and Legacy of Henrietta Swan Leavitt
Sponsored By: Neal Utterback

Many theatrical performances are works of fiction. So, it is not often one gets to portray a real person, especially one from our contemporary history. Henrietta Swan Leavitt was an astronomer at Harvard in the early 20th century and she is responsible for determining how we can measure distances in space. "Silent Sky" by Lauren Gunderson gives voice to Ms. Leavitt's work and legacy, for which she still has not received the credit she was due.

In order to prepare for this Capstone role of playing Henrietta Leavitt, I conducted research beyond the typical preparations of an actor. Understanding her contributions to science and learning about her life allowed me to better understand Ms. Leavitt, which ultimately made it possible to show a depth of character that cannot possibly be portrayed in the script.

Sierra Waite

"Love of My Life" by Queen: Using the Neo-Aristotelean Approach to Confront Change in the Self Through Loss
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

I chose to analyze the song “Love of My Life” by Queen, which speaks to expression, identification, and change in the "self." Using the Neo-Aristotelean Appraoch, which focuses on a rhetor's effectiveness, I conduct a two-step analysis. In this analysis of the rhetorical situation, I examine “Love of My Life” (1975), which was written by Freddie Mercury. I argue that in “Love of My Life,” Mercury effectively uses invention, style, and memoria to meet the constraints of purpose and his audiences. I contextualize Mercury’s message by explaining the background of Mercury, the band, and the song. Then, I analyze the lyrics of the song for its rhetorical strategies to argue why the song is effective.

Elyzabeth Graham

Haley Carrasco

Nicholas Sinapius

Thomas Cope

Sarah Coffman

Jarrod Gibson

Observations of Eclipsing Binary Star Systems at the Juniata College Observatories
Sponsored By: Matthew Beaky

An eclipsing binary system is a system of two stars that orbit the same center of mass and appear to vary in brightness as their orbits overlap each other. Once identified, we image the stars throughout their orbital period to observe their changing magnitudes. We then construct a light curve and compare the magnitudes of the two stars to learn more about their periods and to observe previously unknown variable stars. Working in groups of two, we observed three variable stars using a using a 16-inch Meade LX200GPS Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, as well as a 12-inch Meade LX200GPS Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope at our remote observatory at Sparks Farm in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. The data was analyzed to find the light curve using Maxim DL. 

Evan Quinter

A Summer at Sea: Alternative Education through the Seamester Program
Sponsored By: Neil Pelkey

I spent a summer on board the S/Y Argo with the Seamester program. This organization prides itself on alternative educational experiences, taking students out of the classroom and into the real world. My trip was aroud the South Pacific, visiting island nations such as French Polynesia, Vanuatu, The Cook Islands, and Fiji. While on the ship, I learned advanced topics in oceanography, marine biology, and sailing. I was also taught basic first aid, navigation, and advanced scuba diving skills. My time with Seamester not only introduced me to new parts of the world, but to differnet forms of learning that improve students retention and enjoyment rates of the academic experience.

Natalie Gibson

Predicting Wolf Genetics in Pennsylvania Coyotes
Sponsored By: Kimberly Roth

Coyotes are an admixture of coyotes, dogs, and wolves due to hybridization. Coyotes brought to hunt clubs were analyzed with various statistical techniques to predict the percentage of each coyotes’ genetics derived from wolves. Morphological, color, and genetic characteristics about coyotes were used to predict the percent wolf in the coyotes’ genetics.

Jamey Rondeau

The Cycle of Precarious Testing
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

Standardized testing and high stakes testing are terms people often get confused. Standardized testing is a form of assessment that has the same questions and scored in the same manner to compare against other test-takers.     High-stakes testing is any test that makes important decisions, often using standardized tests. In the world of capitalistic values, the United States of America has to prove they can compete globally by preparing and investing in the future workforce. To ensure this happens, the government must use tests that are standardized to assess that their education system is producing and hold schools accountable for its progress. The government does this through the decreasing of funding and the evaluation of teachers. Consequently, this causes an array of pressure on teachers, which in turn creates anxiety among students. Students are held accountable because they are told they will not graduate if they do not perform well on the tests. This inflicts a wave of anxiety and negatively impacts of the overall health and learning of students. I argue that high stakes education policies on standardized testing for capitalistic gain, which is affirmed by the media, creates unrecognized cultural violence on student learning.  

Hugh Garry

Causes of Senegal's landmine problem, 1990-2007
Sponsored By: Emil Nagengast

The Casamance Conflict is one of Africa's longest running low level conflicts, yet despite this, it is relatively unknown beyond the borders of the Republic of Senegal. Even more unknown is the disastrous role landmines have played in the conflict and why landmines pose a threat in the region. This presentation evaluates the causes of Senegal’s landmines problem by analysing the shared responsibility of the Government of Senegal and the Mouvement des Forces Démocratiques de la Casamance for the presence of landmines; economic utility of landmines; and failures to abide by international agreements. The information presented was collected over a yearlong period during primarily drawing from international NGOs and primary source interviews. 

Tyler Weigel

Preparation of Chiral Aziridines Through a Copper-Catalyzed Asymmetric Reduction of 2H-Azirines
Sponsored By: John Unger

Copper Hydride is a versatile reducing agent which allows for ligation of chiral ligands in order to effect asymmetric reduction of pi-?bonds.  It has been broadly used for the asymmetric reduction of carbonyl compounds, imines, and conjugated alkenes, but it has not yet been applied to the reduction of strained heterocycles. This body of research focuses on the development of an asymmetric reduction of 2H-azirines to produce chiral aziridines.  We have screened several chiral bidentate phosphine ligand families? N-heterocyclic carbene ligands, silicon-based hydride sources, and solvents to optimize yield and stereoselectivity. This work expands upon the utility of copper-hydride as an asymmetric reducing agent in organic synthesis.

Bridget Redpath

Picture Perfect Power: How Queen Elizabeth I Politicized Fashion and Portraiture to Tame Her Nobility
Sponsored By: Alison Fletcher

Queen Elizabeth I of England ruled from 1558 to 1603 and is known to history as the Virgin Queen. She defiantly refused to mary or have children, claiming that her marriage was to the Kingdom of England. She took the throne after a difficult period of religious tension and violence and inherited a nobility that did not trust or accept her as their Queen. During her reign, many portraits were painted of her, perpetuating the image of her as a strong, virginal woman. Despite her Parliament and nobles pestering her to take a husband and secure a male heir to the throne, she remained steadfast in her resolve. Her portraits therefore display a sense of the Queen's authority and agency that suggests an intentional self-crafting of her own image. By examining five different portraits of Elizabeth spread throughout the duration of her reign, in conjunction with fasion-regulating Sumptuary Laws and Elizabeth's own speechees, this thesis examines the ways in which Elizabeth used these portraits of herself and the purposeful self-fashioning of her dress, to consolidate her control over her nobility. 

Kylie Orndorf

John Randolph

Mammalian assessment of B.E.E.F.
Sponsored By: Dennis Johnson

The Brumbaugh Educational and Experimental Forest (B.E.E.F) is an untouched piece of Juniata owned property near Raystown Lake in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. This 300-acre property consists of several isolated watersheds and a wide variety of habitats including riparian, deep forest, clear cut, and man-made trails. We conducted a survey using Browning camera traps and Sherman traps to identify the species present in this area. Through a six-week camera trapping and three-week Sherman trapping project, we discovered deer, squirrels, meadow voles, among other mammals. This project is beneficial to Juniata College as it establishes a baseline of what mammals are present, allowing future research to expand on this data.

Francesca Ferguson

Assessing rural well water for atrazine contamination in Central Pennsylvania
Sponsored By: Ursula Williams

Atrazine is a widely used herbicide in the United States. Atrazine is an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) due to its adverse effects on the reproductive and neurological systems of vertebrates and invertebrates.  The objective of this study is to investigate atrazine’s occurrence in well water samples and how its presence is linked to land-use in central Pennsylvania.  Fifteen wells in Huntingdon, Centre, and Blair counties were sampled across a range of various land-use characteristics during October and November 2018.  Prior to analysis, atrazine was extracted from water samples using solid phase extraction. Atrazine concentrations were determined compared to a standard curve using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Quantifiable amounts of atrazine were found in 5 of 15 wells analyzed, ranging in concentration from 0 to .421 ppb. All atrazine concentrations observed were below the regulatory limit set by the US EPA. Variation in atrazine concentrations considered in correlation with land-use. We expected to see higher atrazine concentrations associated with greater agricultural land use. Land-use characteristics were quantified within a one-kilometer buffer around each well and a delineated watershed using ArcMap (ESRI, Redlands, CA).  Contrary to our expectation we observed a statistically significant correlations to turfgrass for the 1 km2 buffer (R = -0.533; p = 0.045).  Atrazine is commonly sprayed on corn cultivation, potentially spiking concentrations in April, May, and June during its application season. Further study is needed to investigate seasonal variation in atrazine levels.

Rachel Kim

Developing a Semi-Quantifiable Environmental DNA Sampling Method to Estimate Brook Trout Densities
Sponsored By: Christopher Grant

Collecting the environmental DNA (eDNA) to survey for target species’ presence has increasingly become a popular method especially for aquatic species detection application. While the method is more time-and-cost-effective than traditional methods that involve physically capturing organisms, eDNA analysis often lacks quantitative components when determining fish densities or populations. Uncertainties also remain surrounding the water temperature’s influence on the detection and quantification of eDNA. To address these issues, we aimed to conduct laboratory studies on eDNA detection and degradation rates of two different populations of brook trout against two different temperatures.  The eDNA release and degradation rates of one brook trout (n=1) against water temperatures at 10 ? and 19 ? and three brook trout (n=3) against 10 ? were quantified using real-time PCR at Northeast Fishery Center’s population ecology lab. The results of this study will help advance our understanding of water temperature’s role in eDNA release and degradation rates of brook trout and further aid our understanding of the eDNA detectability. Moreover, this controlled experiment will help to determine the feasibility of utilizing the eDNA method as a quantitative assessment tool in natural stream ecosystems. This research is in the joint effort with the Unassessed Waters Initiatives by PA Fish and Boat Commission and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s population ecology lab to help with the work to assess, protect, and conserve native brook trout populations.

Joshua Epling

Migrants and Security in France
Sponsored By: J Barlow

I will analyze how the current migrant situation in Europe affects France, with specific insight into the historical cases as well as current EU pressure. France has a long history with migration. After the break down of the colonial occupations of Africa France saw a large influx of North African Migrants, and even encouraged that migration. Now, in the face of the Syrian Refugee crisis, France has become warier about allowing migrants to seek asylum within its borders.

Sierra Garrison

American Sign Language
Sponsored By: Lori Price

I will be signing a song and talking about the ways to interpert a song before signing it and the importance of making sure it is correct. 

There is a possibility that I will use a powerpoint to have steps present when I elebaorate on them.

Harpreet Chamdal

The Alfies: Showcasing Juniata Excellence in Student Athletes
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

The Alfies, an hour event held on the last day of classes, is an award show that displays the athletic talents and achievements for all the athletes, staff and community to share and celebrate. My task for the 2019 Alfies is to showcase Juniata excellence in our athletes through a variety of different mediums combined to create an entertaining award show for all. The content created for The Alfies involves theme development, video, print materials, script writing, event coordination, marketing and much more. To make this event possible, I focused my work into four distinct stages of creation: content, structure, style, and delivery. The first stage, content, focused on the information the award show had to present and why. Structure came with the type of information we needed to display and how we could do it in the most efficient way possible. The third stage, style, focused on the creative side of the event and the design work with it. In this stage, I developed the theme and implemented it to all the different media we needed to create. Finally, delivery focuses on the event itself and how each of the small projects within this main event is displayed. The fall semester was dedicated to content and structure, whereas the spring semester was dedicated to style and delivery. My project for the 2019 Alfies is to create an award show that showcases Juniata excellence in our athletes through various visual media, specifically focusing on the audience experience and communicating our information in an efficient and entertaining way. Throughout this project, I reflected on the successes and challenges that I faced with creating and organizing this event.

John Randolph

Comparison of mercury levels in coyote (Canis latrans) blood compared to the land use type of their home range within the Chesapeake water basin
Sponsored By: Dennis Johnson

This research is using 135 data points of coyotes’ blood samples testing for mercury throughout the Chesapeake Bay area. We compared the mercury levels to data collected by the Chesapeake conservancy on land use type throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed. By looking at the comparison between the land use type within the home range of specific coyote will allow us to assess the environment along with the factors contributing the mercury levels in the coyotes. 

Fabien Delattre

Using self-supervised learning to speed up reinforcement learning
Sponsored By: Gerald Kruse

Deep reinforcement learning has made impressive advances in the last five years. However, the poor data efficiency of these methods remains a major limitation. On the other hand, great progress had been made in self-supervised techniques and unsupervised features extraction. Finding a good latent space with self-supervised techniques may significantly increase the speed of reinforcement learning algorithms. We propose to discuss the effectiveness of using deep auto-encoder to generate a latent space for reinforcement learning algorithm.

Kaleb Gebrekirstos

A Statistical Simulation of Quantum Computers
Sponsored By: Matthew Beaky

Since the 1960s the power of computers has increased exponentially allowing computers to get smaller and faster at the same time. However, this process is about to reach its physical limits as computer parts are approaching the atomic scale. One possible solution to this problem is transforming the way classical computation is done. Quantum computers use quantum bits or qubits for transferring, storing and manipulating data. Unlike classical bits, which are either in state 0 or 1, qubits can exist in both states simultaneously. It is this property that gives quantum computers superior computing power. This presentation explores the different characteristics of quantum computers including superposition, entanglement and interference. Furthermore, a statistical simulation of quantum computers will be presented by examining quantum gates, Grover's quantum search algorithm and Shor's quantum factoring algorithm.

Caleb Taylor

Synthesis of copper(II) complexes with 3-hydroxyimidazole-1-oxide derivatives for development of single molecule magnets
Sponsored By: Peter Baran

Single molecule magnets are compounds that exhibit magnetic properties on the molecular level below a certain blocking temperature. They often possess multiple metal centers, either homometallic or heterometallic, that are clustered together through bridging ligands. An N-oxide ligand, 1-hydroxyimidazole-3-oxide (HimzO2) was used with the goal to synthesize polynuclear copper(II) complexes and to study their magnetic properties.

HimzO2 is an organic compound with two potential donor atoms that can offer three bridging modes for holding up to four metallic centers closely together, potentially allowing for the synthesis of single molecule magnets. Within this presentation, the bridging patterns of HimzO2 with copper(II) and various anions are explored and topology of obtained polymeric compounds are studied. Results of these syntheses; including three novel compounds ([Cu2(m4-imzO2)(m-imzO2)2(H2O)2]n(ClO4)n•2nH2O, [Cu(m-imzO2)2(H2O)]n•2nH2O, and [Cu(H2O)6]n[Cu2(SO4)2(m4-imzO2)2]n); were characterized by IR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and SQUID will be presented.

Jarrod Gibson

Designing and Implementing a Compact Grism Spectrometer
Sponsored By: Matthew Beaky

Capturing spectroscopic information can be a valuable expansion to an observatory’s capabilities. Devices used for this purpose are committed only to spectroscopy, however, and must be manually engaged and removed from the telescope. The compact grism spectrometer is a simple configuration of a diffraction grating and two prisms that most importantly offers the ability to take photometric and spectral data simultaneously. Because the grism casing is designed fit into a commercial filter wheel, it can be remotely interchanged with photometric filters. The grism works to split incoming starlight into its components by wavelength via the diffraction grating. The two prisms then bend the light to correct the path it will take, ensuring that the beams fall properly on the CCD chip. This presentation will detail the process we took to design the grism, then build and test the device. As a final goal to the project, we aim to implement the CGS device at the Sparks Farm Robotic Observatory.

Camden Kasik

The Design, Construction, Characterization and Applications of a Helium-Neon Laser
Sponsored By: Yu Gu

Helium-Neon (HeNe) lasers are often used to align interferometers, which are optic tools used for extremely precise measurements. These lasers are relatively inexpensive and emit visible light usually at 632.8nm, making them useful in undergraduate level physics experiments. The construction of a HeNe laser provides an in-depth understanding of the processes required to create stimulated emission. The circuity required to provide the correct power for a HeNe laser will be discussed, as well as the beam characteristics of a HeNe laser constructed from basic components. Modifications and its application to a Michelson interferometer will also be discussed.  

Kathryn Burket

Sorting First-Year Students into Preferred Courses via the Hungarian Algorithm
Sponsored By: Kristin Camenga

The purpose of this research is to develop a method for sorting first-year students into newly developed courses that can be utilized by the Registrar at Juniata College. The goal is to ensure that every student gets placed in a course that they chose as a preference, as each student will provide us with their top five course preferences. We will create a graphical model of how students can be matched to courses and use the Hungarian Algorithm to find a perfect matching in the graph, which matches every student to exactly one seat in one of the courses. This matching will represent an optimal assignment of students to courses, including college-specified constraints.

Melissa Weatherford

Blue's Clues: Pigment, Paints, and Potential.
Sponsored By: Karen Rosell

Ancient societies around the world have used art and color to communicate in a language beyond words. Through art, color carries distinctive meanings from all cultures, and functions as a tool for communication. By understanding how color was used in the context of different civilizations, common symbolism begins to emerge, but especially in Egypt and China. In these empires, blue was prized for its uniqueness and embodied a deep significance within their works of art. However, Egypt and China did not have access to blue minerals and consequently, they created the first synthetic pigments discovered in the ancient world. Trade between Europe, the Middle East, and Asia resulted in the spread of minerals and dyes used to make blue pigments. This resulted in many separate societies adding layers of complexity to color based on their cultural traditions. In my thesis I intend to explore these complexities. 

Joseph Grugan

The $15 Minimum Wage
Sponsored By: J Barlow

In the 2016 presidental primaries, the three democratic candidates who particiapated in at least two televised debates all endorsed a $15 federal minimum wage. Additionally, 52 percent of voters in 2016 said they supported a $15 minimum wage. This paper explores the effect minimum wage increases have had on employment in fast food restaurants and makes a prediction about what effect a $15 minimum wage would have on employment in fast food restaurants. 

Alicen Moats

Margaret Peck

The Role of Ceramide Synthases in the Mediation of Heavy Metal Stress
Sponsored By: Jason Chan

Cadmium is an extremely toxic heavy metal that is hazardous to human health. Cadmium enters the environment through a variety of sources, including industrial practices, agriculture, and cigarette smoke. It is present in agricultural pesticides, which can lead to the contamination of food. When consumed Cadmium can cause organ damage. Prolonged exposure to Cadmium can result in conditions such as pulmonary edema, renal dysfunction, osteoporosis, bone fracture, and cancer. The toxin has been known to induce stress in organisms by causing a buildup of reactive oxygen species. Stress response is known to be mediated by the sphingolipid pathway. Our goal was to further analyze the effect of Cadmium on animals and determine whether sphingolipids play a role in an animal’s response to Cadmium. We utilized the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Specifically, we examined the role of one sphingolipid metabolism enzyme, hyl-2/ceramide synthase, in heavy metal stress response. hyl-2/ceramide synthase converts sphingosine to ceramide in the cells. Ceramides regulate reactive oxidative species (ROS) in the body. We found that Cadmium does not have an effect on animal reproduction, but it does affect longevity. We also found that the hyl-2 gene is vital for oxidative stress response mechanisms. These results are important because stress plays a role in aging, and if we better understand how stress is regulated via ceramide signaling, it could become a potential pharmaceutical target to slow the degradative aging process and help to retain function.

Lavinia Unverdorben

Using the Synovial Fluid Microbiome to Diagnose Prosthetic Joint Infections
Sponsored By: Regina Lamendella

Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are one of the most severe complications of joint replacement surgeries and are becoming a growing problem. These infections are difficult to diagnose and often diagnosed late due to current tests lacking sensitivity and specificity. This project aims to optimize the extraction of microbial DNA and RNA analytes from joint synovial fluid to identify potential microbial biomarkers of PJIs and to benchmark this next generation sequencing approach as a current clinical diagnostic method. Synovial fluid and blood samples were collected from patients with primary joints, aseptic joints, and infected joints at the Rothman Orthopaedic Institute (Philadelphia, PA). Following DNA and RNA extraction and library preparation, DNA and RNA sequencing was performed using Illumina technology. Preliminary results indicate that RNA data yielded more comprehensive results than the DNA data, with fewer bacteria identified and lower species richness observed in the DNA than the RNA dataset. Beta diversity analysis of RNA data showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) clustering of synovial fluid and blood samples, revealing distinct microbial community compositions within each sample type. Prominent and expressive taxa identified from RNA data included Escherichia coli and Ralstonia pickettii. Although E. coli was observed in all synovial fluid samples, it had a greater relative abundance in patients with infected joints. Ralstonia pickettii was observed in synovial fluid samples of healthy patients (primary joints) but not in other sample types.  Bacterial species associated with PJIs including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were observed but at much lower abundances compared to E. coli and R. pickettii.  Within the RNA dataset, a total of 62 unique antibiotic resistance genes were detected including the bla OXA-60 and TolC genes, which are known to mediate resistance to a wide variety of drugs. Overall, this study illustrates the ability to use next generation sequencing to profile the microbial communities in joint synovial fluid and identify potential biomarkers for PJIs. Moreover, it has potential to inform and improve PJI diagnosis and treatment. Future work will involve using this data to track common contaminants, to develop predictive modelling tools for PJIs, and to better understand how microbial interactions are driving pathogenicity.

Jason Gerber

Does the spread of nuclear weapons make the world safer or more dangerous, and how worried should we be about a nuclear war?
Sponsored By: J Barlow

The research question that I plan to base my paper on is, Does the spread of nuclear weapons make the world safer or more dangerous, and how worried should we be about a nuclear war? In order to solve this question, I plan to research the topic extensively, finding sources that are both current and old to learn about how nuclear capabilities came to be, and what they are today. This paper will also be written from the perspective of the United States, emphasizing the power of the president in terms of nuclear capabilities.

I will begin the paper by explain how and why nuclear capabilities were first formed. I will review the timeline to highlight important events that lead to where we stand today regarding capabilities and nuclear war. World War II and the nuclear arms race are the two major events that will be developed throughout the paper. Understanding what countries own nuclear weapons as well as how much they have will also be examined.

After laying the groundwork of the history of nuclear power, the paper will begin to address the research question which relates to modern events. An in depth look into the differences between nuclear views under the Obama and Trump administrations as well as Trump’s relationship with leaders of other countries with nuclear weapons will be assessed. Understanding Trump and his policies regarding the use and protection of nuclear capabilities will play a major role in answering the question at hand. The recent news of Trump confirming that the United States will withdraw from the INF agreement, the nuclear arms treaty with Russia, will also be reviewed in determining the nuclear state of our country as well as the rest of the world.

Finally, the paper will determine whether the spread of nuclear weapons makes the world safer or more dangerous, and this will lead into the conclusion of how worried we should be of a potential nuclear war. After reading this paper, the reader should have a good understanding of nuclear capabilities, as well as how likely it may be that a nuclear event occurs. I hope readers are able to recognize Trump’s role and power in the likelihood of a nuclear event, especially in comparison to previous administrations.

Ruhama Gari

A medical narrative: an assessment of attitude towards the health care system among underprivileged members of Huntingdon, Pa
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

Medical narrative integrates the use of story-telling to validate the experiences of the patient beyond the symptoms of the illness by showing concern while fostering effective listening (Zacharias, 2018). There is growing research on the support of medical narratives and their ability to help foster a therapeutic relationship between a healthcare provider and patient. It shifts the focus to the patient and invites the physician to be an empathetic listener. In addition, the narratives can be a basis for change to a more supportive healthcare system on issues such as the use of medical jargons, unbalanced power dynamics, and lack of agency to name a few. I argue that their experience has shaped their attitude towards seeking care, and the trust that they place in the healthcare industry. To gather these narratives,  I conduct three 40-minute long interviews with members of the Huntingdon community in the last week of March 2019. For this study, I collect and analyze their medical narratives to understand the lived experiences of underprivileged community members as patients and their struggles with the health care system in Huntingdon, PA. I analyze the implications of how their experience has shaped their attitude towards seeking care, and the trust that they place in the healthcare industry. Finally, understanding their experiences in context allows us to assess how the support of healthcare advocates can influence the responses of the participants.

Evan Ulrich

Characterization of Diode Lasers for Applications in an Optical Tweezing Platform
Sponsored By: Yu Gu

Diode Lasers are an industry standard for many optical applications due to their relatively low costs, reliable performance, and compact size. The characterization of these lasers is extremely important in order to determine the suitability for specific applications. Several lasers from Gu Labs, including a 1550 nanometer fiber-pigtailed laser and a 638 nanometer free space laser, are characterized. Relevant parameters include power output, beam shape, spectrum, and beam diameter, among others. An error analysis regarding power fluctuations due to temperature is also examined. Based on results, an optimal setup for implementation in an optical tweezing platform will be discussed. 

Andie Lowery

Kawaii Culture
Sponsored By: Douglas Stiffler

This presentation will explain what (Japanese) Kawaii Culture is and where it came from, and what this culture means to society. 

Cori Timney

The Fairness of Unique Four-Sided Dice
Sponsored By: Kimberly Roth

Serving as pseudo-random number generators, dice have been a staple of gaming, gambling, and fortune telling. We explore the fairness of the “crystal” four-sided die, a modern adaption of the ancient four-sided long die. These dice challenge our assumptions about what fair dice should look like, perhaps for very good reasons. Unlike a tetrahedron, this die has no regular faces. We test the fairness of this die by treating it as a random number generator and testing its roll sequences.  

Alessandra Fama

Gabrielle Buchan

Elizabeth Migatulski

Isabella Weber

Christine Malek

Modulating Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Empathic Response
Sponsored By: Rebecca Weldon

There is considerable interest in cognitive and neural bases of empathy. Currently, there is a wealth of information on the modulation of empathic responses by certain demographic factors (e.g., race, gender), yet there are few studies that examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on empathy. We plan to address this issue by using electroencephalography (EEG) to look at the brain while participants (Juniata College students) are evaluating images of others in pain (e.g., a hand cut by a knife). We will pair EEG data collected during this evaluation task with results from a survey about participant SES. We would like to use this study to examine the effects of SES on empathy, as well as to observe how participants react to individuals of differing status. Our presentation will focus on the background, methods, and implications of our research.

Nitya Chagti

Kalos and the Intellectual Development of Greek Aesthetics
Sponsored By: Belle Tuten

Throughout the development of Greek thought and aesthetics, the meaning of key terms such as "the beautiful" or kalos have seen drastic changes in connotation to mean "the fine," "the noble," and "the good."  An examination of how kalos is employed differently in texts allows the reader to understand how the term developed and changed throughout Greek Antiquity. It is imperative to conduct a study of the development of key terms such as kalos, which perform an integral role in ancient philosophical thought as being notable literary terms in to understand history in its own context. Indubitably, to completely understand the roots and classical meanings of key philosophical terms in order to better one’s understanding of Western philosophy in the modern day, this thesis embraces the changing nature of ideas in history and philosophy and the fact that ideas are in a constant state of motion.

Ann Ordiway

Through the Looking Glass: Distorted Self-Representation in the Art of Max Ernst and Claude Cahun
Sponsored By: Karen Rosell

In 1924 André Breton published The Manifesto of Surrealism, bringing to fruition the formation of the literary based movement. During the years preceding the advent of surrealism, several artists took notice of Breton and his work and adopted his ideologies. Like their leader, the surrealists were particularly interested in the theories of Sigmund Freud, which precipitated their emphasis on automatism, juxtaposition, and recurring imagery. Such techniques were meant to allow artists to explore their subconscious unreservedly. Surrealist art became a foundation for self-representation and examining personal desire, as well as challenging social perceptions.

Max Ernst, originally a German Dadaist, became one of the earliest surrealists. His satirical humor and vibrant imagination transitioned effortlessly into the new movement. Because Ernst took particular interest in Freud during his time at university, his surrealist works were largely self-reflective. He repeated images related to childhood traumas and the mythical persona he adopted. Claude Cahun was another artist of the time who attempted to construct an identity through her work. Although she is not considered a surrealist, her photographic self-portraiture aligns with the movement’s ideologies.  Like Ernst, she drew from traumatic influences in her formative years and considered Freudian theories in her staging. Both of these artists attempted to perpetuate a semi-fabricated depiction of their identities in their artwork. This paper will analyze how surrealism and individual experience for Ernst and Cahun shaped the development of their self-representations.

Daniel Fernandez

Characterization of iron(III) coordination complexes in a tripodal ligand environment
Sponsored By: Ursula Williams

Many research groups have investigated tripodal iron coordination complexes as possible catalysts in small molecule activation chemistry. To contribute to this growing body of research, we have used computational chemistry to predict the properties of iron complexes in tripodal ligand environments. Specifically, we have modeled compounds using the BP86 density functional and used this method to calculate reaction energies and predict expected products. We have synthesized tripodal iron complexes using the nitrilotriacetate ligand. We will describe the crystallographic and spectroscopic characterization of these complexes.

Melat Solomon

Blockchain in Supply Chain Management in Ethiopia
Sponsored By: Randy Rosenberger

To what extent is the incorporation of blockchain technology inot the supply chain of businesses in ethiopia able to improve the efficiency of business operations?

Jessica Gray

Back to the Future: Assessing the Aesthetic Fallacies of Futurism
Sponsored By: Karen Rosell

The early twentieth century brought about a myriad of new aesthetic innovations, ideologies, and movements that collectively sought to redefine and advance the visual arts. The prominent vehicle with which to spread these emerging artistic visions was the artist’s manifesto. Outlining the specific artistic goals of each movement, the manifesto served as a tool for artists to express the group’s ideology, and to connect with their audiences. Emerging from this new era in art history was Futurism. Like many of its Avant-Garde counterparts, Futurism sought to redefine the previous conventions set in art by glorifying modernity, and romanticizing technology and the machine. But differing from its contemporaries, Futurism did not begin with a visual image; instead it derived from the text of the manifesto. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti published his Manifesto of Futurism in 1909 on the cover of the French newspaper Le Figaro. While his statement did not specifically reference the visual arts or aesthetic techniques, from these words on the page, a twentieth century art movement was born.

Artists Umberto Boccioni, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini, Carlo Carr?, and Luigi Russolo attempted to create a visual representation of Futurism. But, when comparing the Manifesto of Futurism with works by the founding Futurists artists, there appears to be a disconnect between its words and the images on canvas. And, while many works by Futurist artists exemplify various philosophies put forth by Marinetti, these ideas never came to fruition within a single work. Thus, lacking a definable aesthetic, we are left wondering was Futurism successfully able to communicate the ideologies introduced by Marinetti?

Hudson Speck

Bryce Walter

Ethan McGee

Jacob Puia

The Institution of Warfare
Sponsored By: Donna Weimer

The advancements of technology used in war, as well as their social implications, will go on to change the institution of warfare itself. We will disucss new technologies that are changing warfare and the social implications that arise from dehumanization brought on by these technologies. We will also present how the institution of warfare is evolving and changes our thinking, identity, organization, and relationships. 

Ambrose Lutwyche

Renewable energy development in Europe
Sponsored By: J Barlow

Many things

Laura Early

Simulating the Thermodynamics of an Electric Kiln
Sponsored By: Yu Gu

Electric kilns play an important role in the ceramic arts because they are the most consistent type of kiln. Understanding the heat distribution within the kiln over the duration of the firing can lead to more informed decisions of where and how to place the artwork in the kiln. The goal of this project is to simulate the heat distribution of a theoretical electric kiln throughout its firing and find its associated efficiency. The results of this simulation will be presented.

Harry Biddle

Exploring the Fluid Dynamics of the Fin of a Water-ski to Optimize its Ability to Cut
Sponsored By: Yu Gu

In the water sport of waterskiing, being able to make quick controlled cuts, or accelerated lateral movement, is immensely important. One adaptation to improve this ability to make turns has been fins added to the back of the ski. The ski must displace water yet not slow the ski in its forward motion giving it the strongest ability to make the cuts that are so important to skiers. There are many types of fins and improvements to fins that have been developed over the past ten or so years such as holes, streamline shaping, and foils that have increased the ski’s ability to accelerate laterally and track through the water. We explore the fluid dynamics of fins and how that qualitatively changes though modifications such as the ones stated above. The fluid dynamics discussed will be observed qualitatively though a self-built wind tunnel. The results give insight into how the fins of skis may be optimized.

Perry Willig

Inside Out reflections
Sponsored By: Alison Fletcher

I took History of South Africa inside of SCI Smithfield where we met once a week for an entire semster. I learned a lot, abour prison and South Africa, and had a good time doing it.

Piper McGonigle

Truth and Untruth in Memoir
Sponsored By: Peter Goldstein

For my senior capstone thesis I wrote about the way that three different writers, David Sedaris, Samantha Irby, and Patrcia Lockwood utilize truth and untruth in their memoirs. I'll talk address questions such as; why do you trust and believe that what we read in a memoir is truth? and How do authors play with truth and untruth in telling a life story?

Maria Fowler

Integrated bacterial and fungal profiling examine bacterial and fungal communities' roles in promoting C. difficile infections
Sponsored By: Regina Lamendella

Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen of the gut that causes nearly 500,000 infections per year in the United States, with 20 to 30 percent of cases recurring. Little is known about how C. difficile infections modulate the gut’s fungal community and how this dysbiosis may perpetuate its recurrence. This study aimed to contribute to the understanding of disease progression by identifying bacterial and fungal community structures and the bacterial-fungal interactions in C. difficile infected (CDI) patients. Diarrheal stool samples from CDI and non-CDI patients were collected from hospitalized patients, and the taxonomic marker, or “thumbprint,” regions of DNA, 16S rRNA for bacteria and ITS for fungi, were isolated and sequenced to determine the microbial communities. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were also preformed to further characterize the communities’ structure and function. Bioinformatic analysis of the 16S rRNA and ITS data revealed a greater number of fungal taxa enriched in CDI samples than non-CDI samples. Further, cooccurrence network analysis using the program CoNet displayed negative correlations between the fungal taxa Penicillium and Aspergillus and several bacterial taxa in CDI samples. These findings indicate that CDI infections may create an environment that allows fungal communities to bloom and possibly suppress commensal bacteria. Additionally, bioinformatic analysis of the metatrancriptomic and metagenomic data revealed that pathways involving biofilm formation, inflammation, flagellar assembly, and two-component systems involving osmotic regulation were enriched in CDI samples. These functionalities may allow C. difficile to persist in the gut, and therefore may lead to failed treatments and reoccurrences. Our data suggest that the differential bacterial and fungal communities in CDI and non-CDI patients may lead to high recurrence rates and could lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches.

Austin Montgomery

Analysis of N-oxide transition metal complexes and synthesis of an N-oxide Schiff base ligand
Sponsored By: Peter Baran

Aromatic amine N-oxides are known to produce interesting results in coordination chemistry due to their ability to form polynuclear complexes and have unique magnetic properties.1The goal of this project is to synthesize a polydentate chelating ligand capable of forming dinuclear complexes with two types of metallic centers. In the first step of synthesis, 2-methoxy-6-methylpyridine was oxidized to yield a mixture of 2-methoxy-6-methylpyridine N-oxide (L1) and 1-hydroxy-6-methyl-2(1H)-pyridinone (HL2). The crystal structures of these ligands alone and complexes they form with different transition metals have been studied. This mixture, without purification, was complexed with salts of different 2+ transition metals to yield a variety of complexes such as [Cu(L2)2], [Cu(L1)2(H2O)2]Cl4, [Zn(L2)2(H2O)], [Zn(L1)2]Br2, and [Co(L2)2(H2O)]. They were analyzed through X-ray crystallography. Details of overall synthesis and crystal structures from obtained complexes will be presented. 

1Karayannis, N. Metal complexes of aromatic amine n-oxides. Coordination Chemistry Reviews11,93–159 (1973).

Callum R Bailey

The European Union as a Negotiator: Brexit Case Study
Sponsored By: J Barlow

The United Kingdom (UK) and the European Union (EU) are as of right now, engaged in negotiations to establish the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. Despite this, little has been written about how the EU has brought together conflicting interests and retained a coherent and unified negotiation stance. Whilst it can be said this is not surprising based on the EU’s history in international negotiations, it should be noted that this is a fresh negotiation that the EU has not experienced before: withdrawal from its own organisation after decades of membership. Withdrawal poses new problems for the EU and its member states. To evaluate how the EU has aligned conflicting interests and conducted itself in negotiations, I have looked at several theories on how the EU negotiates, ranging from how the EU adopts to the lowest common denominator, how effective it is to describe the EU’s approach as a Two or Three level game theory, or how the European Commission adopts a principal-agent approach and how it exploits that to advance its own interests. The result of this analysis is that the EU has adopted an amalgamation of these theories, and that in conclusion whilst the result of this is negligible in importance, it can be said that the EU has negotiated Brexit in a similar fashion to other international agreements, despite speculation by the press to the contrary.

Anne-Marcelle Kouame

A Nouchi Journey: Language, Identity and a Coping Mechanism for Young Ivorian Migrants
Sponsored By: Deborah Roney

Every year, an estimated 395,190 migrants attempt to cross over to Europe from the Mediterranean region. Rising among their ranks are Ivorian migrants who bring a rich linguistic phenomenon known as Nouchi: a hybrid or crossover language specific to Côte d’Ivoire that draws from French, Dioula, and other European and Ivorian native languages. Nouchi appeared in the 1970s as a secret vernacular that disenfranchised youths used to meet their survival needs in the streets of Abidjan, the economic capital of Cote d’Ivoire. Popularized by students in the 1990s, Nouchi was used in music to conceal dissidence and avoid state censorship. Today, Nouchi serves as a lingua franca for Ivorian youths and continues to evolve among the Ivorian Diaspora abroad.

Nouchi’s creole characteristics unite Ivorian migrants and help them maintain a sense of cultural identity. To protect their integrity and prevent social intrusion, they continually recreate Nouchi codes. I hypothesize that Nouchi, as a coded language, evolved to help young Ivorians adapt to hostile conditions on their migration journey to Europe. My presentation will include examples of Nouchi vocabulary that describe the migration lifestyle and how Nouchi is recreated to meet the migrants’ survival needs.

In my experiences in France, Morocco and Tunisia, where I lived among Ivorian migrant communities, Nouchi speakers engaged in code-switching between Nouchi and French and introduced Arabic words to Nouchi. Like French, Nouchi has a Subject-Verb-Object structure but draws upon the phonemic tonal systems found in the native languages. This results in the creation of different Nouchi dialects that depend upon the speaker’s linguistic background, socioeconomic status, and living environment. Lastly, Ivorian migrants identify with a deeply-rooted philosophy called “bori-minds,” a Dioula-English hybrid expression that refers to nurturing one’s mind in order to persevere.

My research is framed by James W. Carey’s ritual view of communication. He explains that the formation and continuation of community beliefs draw people together and create meaning through language to portray and confirm a particular worldview. Using this theory, I conducted ethnographic interviews with individuals and focus groups and transcribed and translated the interviews from Nouchi to French and English.

Thiri (Theresa) Oo

Why it is difficult to invest in Myanmar and how to make it more accessible. 
Sponsored By: Bradley Andrew

This presentation will provide a brief background of Myanmar's history and an explanation on the economic and policial situation in terms of infrastructure such as transportation, electricity, education, finance, and medical, with a concentration in two industries: tourism and manufacture. 

Using the SWOT and other analysis tools of its infrastructure and other factors, I will explain why it is hard to invest in Myanmar and provide a solution to make it more accessible. 

Brooklyn Welsh

Do women have a higher disposition to critical thinking and can a critical thinking framework improve intelligence analysis?
Sponsored By: Emil Nagengast

While the intelligence community tried to bounce back from the intelligence failures of the September 11thterrorist attacks and the false estimation of Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction programs, an intelligence success was noted worldwide. It was the hunt and assassination of Osama Bin Laden by a group of nearly all female analysts. Their success preceded by historical intelligence failures not seen since Pearl Harbor and the Cuban Missile Crisis has sparked a conversation on what women can offer a field, they have long been underrepresented in. The internal reviews conducted by intelligence agencies after the September 11thterrorist attacks and the overestimation of Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction programs, provide insight into the key skills women may be disposed to have that lead to their success as analysts. Agencies now identify a critical thinking disposition as the most important factor that lessens the likelihood of intelligence failures. The purpose of this study is to determine if those that identify as female demonstrate more critical thinking dispositions essential to successful analysis. This will be tested administering a Critical Thinking Dispositions Self-Rating Form to voluntary participants of three international studies courses. 

Nina Conner

Anastasia North

Gaging Interests in a Potential Fashion Marketing Course
Sponsored By: Li Shen

Dr. Li Shen would like to offer a Fashion Merchandising Marketing course at Juniata College. We were given the task of finding student interest in this course. First, we administered a focus group with 8 students. Then, we incorporated their feedback into a survey to gage interest in this course from a larger group. Lastly, we took the results from both of these research methods to understand uncertainty within the course, find topics of interest, and ultimately discover how successful this course would be at Juniata College.

Azia Kalil

Samantha Bromley

Loss of hyl-2/ceramide synthase reduces oxidative stress response in C. elegans
Sponsored By: Jason Chan

Although humans are now living longer lives, they are not necessarily healthier lives due to the effect of aging. The older humans become, the more subject they are to the diseases associated with aging including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. The rapid developments in health care have resulted in a huge population of elderly that will require a better understanding of the aging process in order to effectively care for their needs. Stress  can damage cells, and subsequently be detrimental towards an animal’s survival. One form of stress is  oxidative stress. Oxidative stress causes cellular damage such as oxidation of lipids and proteins and DNA damage. A metabolic pathway involved in the oxidative stress response is the sphingolipid pathway. In particular,  the metabolic enzymes ceramide synthases and acid sphingomyelinases. These function in  regulating cellular levels of ceramide, which is known to lead to the release of reactive oxidative species (ROS) by the mitochondria. Although ROS are a natural byproduct of the mitochondria and cellular activity, an overaccumulation of ceramide can lead to an overaccumulation of ROS or oxidative stress. Our project aims to identify whether sphingolipid enzymes promote healthy aging, by examining how ceramides  combating oxidative stress in C. elegans, a roundworm. Previous studies have shown an increase in ceramide synthase levels as animals age. Through prior studies we believe we have identified hyl-2 (ceramide synthase in worms) as a regulator in ROS accumulation. We hypothesize that hyl-2 is necessary for efficient removal of ROS accumulation in the body through the use of a reporter worm for the activity of sod-3, an enzyme that to reduces oxidative radical formation. To do this, We will examine green fluorescence protein (GFP) transcriptional reporter under the sod-3 promoter, which increases GFP fluorescence when animals are stressed. We will use this to examine whether hyl-2 is involved in stress response in hyl-2 knockout animals. The stress response will be qualitatively analyzed through imaging of GFP expression in control and hyl-2 knockout mutants. In addition, the use of RNAi will be utilized to better understand the role of several genes within the sphingolipid pathways including hyl-2 and sphk-1. We will treat mutant models of aging with RNAi to see whether sphingolipid signaling interacts with known aging pathways. Understanding the role that hyl-2 plays within the body can help us better understand aging and age-related diseases.

Taylor Knoble

Is Bigger Better? Synthesis of Tripodal Aryloxide Ligands of Variable Steric Bulk
Sponsored By: Ursula Williams

Iron coordination catalysts featuring tripodal aryloxide ligands are studied for a wide variety of applications including small molecule activation, biomimetic chemistry, and polymerization catalysis. To better understand the effects of ligand identity on complexes of this type, we have initiated systematic studies of a family of tripodal aryloxide ligands and their resulting metalated complexes. In this study, two tripodal aryloxide ligands with increasing steric bulk – tris(2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl)amine and tris(2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl)amine – were successfully synthesized by a Mannich-type reaction. A modified synthesis of the novel ligand tris(2-hydroxy-3,5-diadamantyl)amine has been developed and is currently underway. Future work will include the synthesis of iron complexes of these ligands and the evaluation of the properties imparted by ligands of varying steric bulk.

Cassidy Titus

Anna Richey

Egg mass abundance of spotted salamanders in relation to habitat quality of vernal pools
Sponsored By: Chuck Yohn

Vernal pools are small ephemeral wetlands that host obligate species, such as spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) which utilize the pools during breeding season. We developed an eastern forest specific rapid assessment protocol for vernal pools based on several established protocols. We evaluated this protocol by comparing assessment scores to the peak number of egg masses deposited by spotted salamanders in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania during the 2018 spring breeding season. A single-observer approach was used to estimate the egg mass abundance at each vernal pool site. Sites that scored lower in habitat quality had fewer spotted salamander egg masses present; however, the correlation values, between habitat quality and egg mass abundance even though strong was not statistically significant (r=0.994 P=0.065). These preliminary results suggest that a greater sample size could validate the assessment protocol.

Andrea Zilch

His Brother's Keeper: Esau Jenkins's Commitment to Voting Rights on Johns Island, SC, 1948-1972
Sponsored By: James Tuten

The life and work of Esau Jenkins (1910-1972) brings to life the significance of grass-roots efforts in the Civil Rights Movement. In the mid-twentieth century while living on Johns Island in Charleston County, South Carolina, Jenkins helped to establish several community organizations committed to improving the lives of African Americans who lived in the Charleston region. Most notably, he contributed to the Progressive Club which hosted the first Citizenship School. These improved adult literacy and increased voter registrations among African Americans. Undoubtedly, Jenkins's diligence and legacy significantly changed his community and many others across the region. By studying his life, we can build a better understanding of the crucial roles grassroots civil rights efforts played in the national Civil Rights Movement.

Kyle Wyse

A Defense of the Cogito
Sponsored By: Xinli Wang

Descartes’ Cogito Ergo Sum is the foundation for his metaphysics and is crucial to many skeptical epistemic arguments. This paper seeks to defend Descartes’ Cogito from two major claims against it. One of those claims is Bertrand Russell’s criticism of the first premise: “I think.” Russell asks whether Descartes has the right to assume thoughts truly imply the existence of a thinker. The second attack on the Cogito is implicit from Lewis Carroll’s paradox of inference, which attacks the fundamentals of logic directly. Logic is known to be an “incomplete system” because it can never contain proof of itself. This paper combines a variety of notions of the Cogito to see how it functions as an argument, and it uses an a priori understanding of existence to explain why the Cogito survives both Russell’s objections and Carroll’s argument.

Alyosha Perez

Kino des Mutigen, des Provokateurs und des Dichters or Cinema of the Bold, the Provocateur, and the Poet.
Sponsored By: Judith Benz

The objective of this project is to educate students on Post-war West-German cinema. To complete this objective, two mediums of communication will be used. The first medium will be a 10-12minute creative film that focuses on the directors, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, and their most well-known films. The second medium will be small booklets that will contain more in-depth information on West-German cinema, so that students may have a better understanding of this period also known as New German Cinema. These booklets will be handed out to the audience after the film.

Sarah Abou-Chleih

A Feminist Critique of Shirley Chisholm's rhetoric
Sponsored By: Lynn Cockett

When she ran for the American presidency in 1972 on the Democratic ticket, Shirley Chisholm was the first female candidate of color to do so, and only the second woman of color to have been elected to the House. Through a feminist lens, this work examines what disadvantages women of color faced in American politics in the 1970s, and acknowledges that many of those struggles still exist today. I argue that Shirley Chisholm was able to shift the rhetorical vision of her audiences, but she was not able to merge them together. This research explores the historical background of sexism, racism and feminist rhetoric and the shared unconscious biases about women leaders of color in the United States. Using Ernest Bormann’s Fantasy Theme Analysis, a method of rhetorical criticism based on symbolic convergence theory, I study the language used by Shirley Chisholm and the media to create a shared rhetorical vision with their audiences and that this vision relies on fantasy themes, fantasy types, and chaining. To create convergence, both, Chisholm and the media address three different demographic audiences, (1) African Americans born in the U.S., (2) African Americans born outside the US, and (3) White Americans. I hypothesize that Shirley Chisholm does not share the same rhetorical vision as her three audiences in 1972, and that they do not share one rhetorical vision with the media either. The struggle Shirley Chisholm and other women of color faced when pursuing a powerful political position in the U.S remains shaped by patriarchal values, and are exclusive to their gender and ethnicity.

Allison Rismondo

Taking a Bite of the Truth
Sponsored By: James Tuten

This presentation looks at the evolution of the shark horror films: seeing how it’s narratives, special effects, and popularity have changed throughout the course of almost a century. Then by looking at these films and how they portray these creatures of the deep, we can compare these depictions to that of how actual sharks behave and respond. These films need to be held accountable for creating a sense of hysteria around sharks over all, leading to humans inhumanely massacring these animals: leading to their populations decreasing.

Adam Mothersbaugh

Exponential Domination
Sponsored By: Kristin Camenga

     In this relatively unexplored area of graph theory, we investigate dominating vertices' ability to influence vertices near them. 

First, under general domination, a graph is considered dominated if every one of its vertices is either in the dominating set or adjacent to a vertex in the dominating set. Instead, we focus on the idea of exponential domination, a graph theory concept first explored by Dankelman et al. Interestingly, under exponential domination, dominating vertices influence not only vertices adjacent to them, but also vertices any distance away from them. Specifically, a dominating vertex would provide a weight (influence) of 1/2 to vertices 2 away from it, 1/4 to vertices 3 away from it, etc. If every vertex receives a sum of weights from dominating vertices that is greater than or equal to 1, then we say the graph is dominated. We will be most concerned with the smallest number of dominating vertices we need to dominate a graph (minimum exponential dominating number). Finally, we will utilize relationships between diameter, weight, and the quantity of vertices and edges in the graph to determine this minimum number for a variety of graphs such as polygons. 

Michael Madden

A new slant: trigonometry in the iso-taxi world
Sponsored By: Kristin Camenga

In cities where the streets are laid out in a grid pattern, one cannot simply drive directly from point A to point B, but must drive strictly north/south and east/west. So here the distance between A and B is different than if the person were in a plane of grass, where he/she could just go straight from A to B, the Euclidean metric or distance.  This is an example of a different metric than our Euclidean metric that we know and love.  In my talk we will explore a metric that looks similar to a city with the streets creating a triangular lattice, and we will delve into angles and trigonometric functions.

Sydney Spicer

Interning with UN Environment
Sponsored By: Neil Pelkey

As a part of my Environmental Fellowship, I created an internship with the UN Environment Global Environmental Monitering Systems/Water Capacity Development Centre in Cork, Ireland. During my time with UN Environment, I worked on communication strategies and community engagement.

Roxanne Jeffers

Are stocked trout a vector for antibiotics in streams? Comparative analysis of Oxytetracyline levels in Farm-Raised and Native Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)
Sponsored By: Christopher Grant

Antibiotics are widely used in the medical and agricultural industry with the ability to persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in food webs. Antibiotics are heavily used in aquaculture one of the fastest growing segments of U.S agriculture. The Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission raises nearly 5 million hatchery raised trout that are stocked in Pennsylvania streams. Oxytetracycline is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in the aquaculture industry to treat bacterial infections in fish.  While antibiotics are commonly used in aquaculture and fish are transported and stocked into streams around the state, no research exists to determine what impact (if any) this may have on aquatic ecosystems.The overall goal of this project is to utilize ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and PremiTest to determine if there are differences in antibiotic concentration in levels of the kidney and muscle tissue between Farm-Raised and Native Brook trout as a result of aquaculture. This research is of paramount importance because if antibiotics are entering the streams through stocking events, this poses potential risks for fish health and aquatic ecosystems.

Sam Wherley

True and Constructed Realities in Catalonia
Sponsored By: J Barlow

How and to what extent and effect have the accounts of recent political tensions between Cataluña and the Spanish state as presented to the public differed from an objective interpretation of the facts?

In order to answer this question, it will be necessary to establish an objective interpretation of the relevant facts. In order to construct this standard for comparison, it will be necessary to explore the context in which these facts appear. To this end, the first task will be one of presenting an overview of the relevant conditions and developments that have transpired in Cataluña since 1714, most narrowly focusing upon the time spanning the presidencies of the Catalan leaders Jordi Pujol, Artur Mas, and Carles Puigdemont, culminating in the referendum of 1 October 2017 and its immediate aftermath.

Contextual components explored will include the treatment of Cataluña, its people, and its language during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, the Autonomy Statute granted to Cataluña during the reinstitution of Spanish democracy, subsequent developments concerning the Autonomy Statute, the nature and pertinence of the Spanish constitution, the cooperative policies of Jordi Pujol, the trajectory of the politics of Artur Mas in the wake of the 2010 ruling by Spain’s Constitutional Court on revisions to the Autonomy Statute and of the financial crisis, the rise and promises of Carles Puigdemont, and the nature of the independence campaign and referendum as well as of the response of the Spanish state.

These facts marshalled into an objective standard for comparison, it will be time to examine the way they have been presented to the public in the years leading up to 2017 and since. Here, it will be important to critique speeches by relevant politicians such as Artur Mas, Carles Puigdemont, and Mariano Rajoy, former presidents of the governments of Cataluña and Spain, respectively, as well as other publicly available information such as that published by news outlets in both Cataluña and Spain generally..

In the comparison of these subjective accounts with the objective standard, a number of academic inquiries will serve as guides in examining the language and strategies employed by the actors in this process. In total, this will leave author and readers alike equipped to answer the question: how and to what extent and effect have the accounts of recent political tensions between Cataluña and the Spanish state as presented to the public differed from an objective interpretation of the facts?

Mikio Tada

Using an integer linear programming to assign students into courses
Sponsored By: Kristin Camenga

We describe how to use mathematical methods to assign incoming-students into courses offered at Juniata College while maximizing student satisfaction based on their preference lists. We convert this optimization problem into an integer linear programming (ILP) problem and solve it by using the simplex method, the branch and bound algorithm, and the cutting plane algorithm. The talk explains how to structure the optimization problem using ILP including additional college POE constraints and discusses the variation in results for different parameters. We use Python and the PuLP library to call GLPK, an open source software package that solves ILP.

Amelia Wagner

Users Beliefs Of Risks And Dangers On Social Media
Sponsored By: Lynn Cockett

Users of social media platforms should understand the contradictions and controversies concomitant with online public profiles. This research strives to understand the ways college-age users from both the U.S. and other countries engage with and manage the risks associated with social media. These risks include, among others: harassment, virtual deception, stolen identities, hacking, and phishing. This qualitative research is based on the narrative perspectives of users.

Surveys are sent out to diverse users and focus groups are then conducted. Surveys are used to form the questions asked in the focus groups. A content analysis of the collected data generates the findings. The focus groups should uncover multiple perspectives and allow participants to interact with one another. Group discussions will produce data where individuals listen to others and verbalize experiences that stimulate memories and ideas. The data analysis is based on the uses and gratifications theory, which attempts to understand why and how humans actively seek out specific media to satisfy needs. This research explores if American college students in the U.S. are aware or unaware of the privacy issues they face, and whether these awareness’s and concerns are shared by international college students in the U.S. In addition to the privacy and security risks prevalent for social media users, the study examines each individual’s awareness of the veracity of the media they consume. This research is still underway and will be completed within early 2019. The end result is to inform users about the media world and the possible regulations that may need to be established to protect individuals.

Avery Lee

Keystone MicroTrack: Mapping Microbes and Pathogens in the Susquehanna River Basin
Sponsored By: Regina Lamendella

Salmonella species represent a significant environmental health problem due to their diversity, presence of human, animal, and aquatic reservoir states, plus the lack of coordinated programs for risk prioritization and control. Current revolutions in DNA sequencing technology have enabled scientists for the first time to perform affordable, yet deep surveys of microbial genomics. This proposal leverages a combination of the latest technological developments in Salmonella typing (CRISPR-SeroSeq) and total bacterial community profiling (metagenomics) to measure, map, and predict the distribution of microbial organisms in the Susquehanna River Basin. Sampling sites within the basin will be selected based on our partnership with the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission, where smallmouth bass populations have been continuously monitored. The major outcome will be the development of an open access interactive tool, Keystone MicroTrack, where Salmonella populations, microbial profiles, physio-chemical data, and smallmouth bass population data will be integrated and visualized. Our proposal directly supports the Ecosystem Resiliency priority area, as our technology will integrate abiotic and biotic information within the Susquehanna River Basin to help prioritize areas of risk within the basin and to optimize the maintenance, resilience, and services this watershed offers.  

Katheryn Weeden

Creating a Hybrid Software Development Methodology to Develop Web Application
Sponsored By: Gerald Kruse

This research analyzes the strengths of popular software development methodologies, such as Traditional (Waterfall) and Agile, and integrates their strengths to create a hybrid method that has the ability to overcome each of the given methodologies' weaknesses. This new hybrid software development methodology will be considered for small-scale projects outside of a traditional workplace setting to solve the issue of current methodologies not working well for college projects. As a proof-of-concept for this new method, it will be implemented in the creation of an internal web application that will be used as a Photo Uploader for the Marketing Department at Juniata College.

Kathryn Goerl

Experimental and Computational Investigation into the Synthesis of 2-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde N-Oxide
Sponsored By: Peter Baran

            2-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde N-oxide (poxal) is the starting material for many condensation reactions, especially those which form N-Oxide Schiff Bases. These condensation products in complexes range in application from single molecule magnets to antitumor drugs. All of the published syntheses of poxal use harsh reaction conditions, less accessible starting materials, and usually produce low yields. For these reasons, an experimental and computational investigation into a more effective and efficient procedure was done to eliminate these issues. In the most common procedure, Jerchel et. al. oxidized α-picoline with a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and glacial acetic acid to form α-picoline N-oxide. Then, they used selenium dioxide in pyridine to selectively oxidize the methyl group to the aldehyde. This final step requires many recrystallizations to remove the byproduct of selenium, so in our alternative procedure we started by using 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde to eliminate use of the selenium dioxide. This presentation will elaborate on the successes and failures of our alternative procedure, as well as provide further computational investigations as support. 

Jeremy Chen See

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing
Sponsored By: Regina Lamendella

Over the past several years, hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has become much more prevalent in the United States and around the world. For example, in Pennsylvania, nearly ten times as much natural gas was produced in 2017 as in 2010 due to the use of fracking. Pennsylvania’s position overlying the Marcellus Shale formation has made it the second largest producer of natural gas in the United States, with only Texas producing more natural gas. One downside of hydraulic fracturing is the large amount of wastewater it produces, generating an average of 1.37 x 10^6 gallons of wastewater (flowback and produced water) during the drilling of a single well in the Marcellus shale formation. This wastewater tends to be very saline and can contain numerous harmful substances, such as radioactive elements. Furthermore, due to the use of biocides within waters used for fracking, bacteria with antibiotic resistance genes are hypothesized to be enriched in this wastewater. To better understand which bacteria are present and what they are capable of, 137 bacteria from a variety of fracking fluids from Pennsylvania and Texas (n = 130) and an impacted stream (n = 6) were sent to the Joint Genome Institute (JGI), with the remaining sample being a bacterium that was collected in the Nile Delta. JGI annotated the resulting sequences, using their Microbial Genome Annotation Pipeline. Resistance to antibiotics was further investigated using BLAST to see which antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the CARD database were present in those bacteria. In total, 115 ARGs were detected in our bacteria. Random forest modelling was used to see how well the 30 most abundant genes and the 30 most prevalent ARGs predicted which type of fracking fluid our bacteria originated from. Although the model based on the most abundant genes performed poorly, with an accuracy of 49.52%, the antibiotic resistance data model performed much better, having an accuracy of 68.75%. The best ARG predictors were genes coding for resistance to linezolid (ARO:3004058) and hygromycin B (ARO:3003539). This indicates the resistance profiles of our bacteria differed more based on sample type rather than their full functional profiles. It also suggests that bacteria in different fracking fluids may have different resistance profiles and that fracking may play a role in promoting antibiotic resistance. Overall, this project contributes to the growing knowledge about bacteria associated with hydraulic fracturing and highlights their tendency to possess ARGs. It is important to understand if and how the presence of ARGs in these bacteria could play a role in spreading antibiotic resistance to the nearby environment and contribute to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.

Thiri Oo

East Asian Pop Culture - The Korean Entertainment Industry
Sponsored By: Douglas Stiffler

This presentation will talk about the Korean Entertainment Industry and how it relates to east asian popular culture with a deeper analysis of the industry, 

Macie Hollenbach

Estrogenicity of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), Anise (Pimpinella anisum), and Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Essential Oils in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Sponsored By: Christopher Grant

Essential oils (EO) are natural compounds extracted from plants that have been used as an alternative form of medicinal therapy since ancient times. The Global Essential Oils Market is expected to exceed $13 billion by 2024; however, even with the marked increase in use of EOs worldwide, the potential estrogenicity of many EOs is not well understood. This study aims to determine whether three commonly used EOs are acting as endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs) by acting as an estrogen mimic. In this study, I am using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to anise (Pimpinella anisum), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil to determine if these substances are acting as EDCs in the fish . To date, a sample size of 32 fish have been exposed to lavender essential oil, along with equal numbers of positive (17?-estradiol) and negative control fish. Following a nine-day exposure to the specified treatments, fish were euthanized and blood plasma was collected, hematocrit measured, and liver, spleen, and body weights were measured. The plasma sample is processed using SDS-PAGE methodology to identify any vitellogenin (vtg) production, a precursor to egg yolk protein found only in sexually mature females. Preliminary results for lavender EO have been inconclusive as far as vtg detection through SDS-PAGE and statistical tests are ongoing. Trout have been shown to have comparable endocrine systems to humans, and can therefore be used as a model organism to study estrogenicity. Due to the increased use of essential oils and wide range of developmental ages of people who use them, it is important to know what effects these substances could have on the body to make people aware so they can make informed decisions about using products that may cause more harm than good.