How do university student non-binge drinkers perceive binge drinkers (5+ drinks in two hours) regarding character traits, such as credibility and considerateness? Considerable resources are spent each year to reduce unhealthy alcohol consumption levels on college campuses. Many of these interventions fail to achieve lasting results because the communication message fails to target social identity and social construction of peer norms among binge drinkers. Binge drinkers use impression management strategies, consciously or unconsciously to influence the social identity they project to others. In this study, one of eight randomly selected photographs, along with a questionnaire, are presented to 140 students at a mid-Atlantic liberal arts college via a web-based link. In each photo, the lighting, background, model’s pose and attire remain constant. There were four models, two males (ages 21 & 23) and two females (ages 21 & 23). The two photos of each model are identical, except that in one photograph the model is holding a shot glass, and I scattered empty alcohol cans and bottles on the floor. In the second photo, the same model is without alcohol artifacts. I hypothesize that non-binge drinkers perceive that the “drunk” model is less credible, similar, healthy, clean and considerate than the sober model at a statistically significant level. Using McCrowsky and Richmond’s scale, I hypothesize no statistical difference between model’s attractiveness or likeability. One of the highest predictors of binge drinking is social pressure from peers to fit into the norms of college drinking. Their drinking behavior is influenced by their perceptions of how those around them think and act. If college binge drinkers learn that they have lower scores on character traits, communication experts can construct more effective messages to reduce binge drinking.
Marijuana use is widespread throughout the country and the world; however, the culture surrounding it remains relatively hidden and unknown to those who do not use the drug. Marijuana use thrives among college aged individuals, and the number of users is increasing (NIDA 2016). This study seeks to understand college students’ perceptions of their marijuana use through qualitative narrative interviews which reveal emergent themes. Interviewing allows for intimate stories of individual’s own experiences, while eliciting thick description (Lindlof & Taylor 2011). Narrative interviews also provide detailed accounts which cannot be achieved as easily using other types of research. This type of data collection also assumes that people understand who they are partly through their everyday performances of narrative. For this research, marijuana users tell their stories occurring within this drug culture. Six interviews are conducted with college age marijuana users. The length of use and experience with the drug vary among the interviewees. Grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin 1990) guides the coding of the data to discover emergent themes from the narratives. These emergent themes give shape to a college student’s understanding of their own use and the culture of marijuana. These emergent themes help reveal the marijuana culture among college students. Marijuana culture has grown to create its own jargon, etiquette, technology, and economy. My findings also provide insight for non-marijuana users into a coculture within American society. These findings contribute to an understanding of the meaning of the drug in college students’ lives and allows for determining and dispelling myths around the marijuana culture. This study prompts significant questions about marijuana culture, while showing that it is community and socially based, like that of alcohol culture, and provides the potential to destigmatize marijuana users.
Contemporary politics are full of violent nationalism, protest, and prejudice, as demonstrated by the Charlottesville White Supremacy Riots and the anti-police brutality protesting in the NFL. In this current political climate, my senior thesis attempts to begin to explain the relationship between nationalism, authoritarianism, and media framing. Authoritarianism is, for the purposes of this study, a set of socially transmitted values, which include a strong desire for stability over personal autonomy, belief that the world is a dangerous place, and belief that stability can be brought about with strong leaders and punitive attitudes. Previous research has demonstrated that authoritarianism is related to various forms of prejudice, nationalism, and support for anti-Muslim policy. Previous research has also demonstrated that media framing, defined simply as the way in which a media source chooses to tell a story through phrasing and imagery, can be used to change the emphasis that individuals place on their values. In the present research, I utilize an experimental design to attempt to alter participants authoritarianism scores and their support for violent nationalist ideology as it relates to the kneeling protests in the NFL with a single exposure to specifically framed news articles.
The debate stage of election campaigns is often the most anticipated and closely followed, but do these debates really influence the thinking of the general public in the United States or the United Kingdom when they decide on who they will vote for? In this paper, I review the current literature from both academia and think-tanks who have contributed to the discussion regarding the effectiveness of election debates on voter preference, from both sides of the Atlantic. This paper argues that the debates in both U.K. and U.S. election cycles do contribute to enabling voters to decide on their preferred candidates, for a variety of reasons, but also argues that the debates could be improved and offers a variety of ways to make the debates better for both candidates and viewers.
The introduction of HR 9467, the “Forand Bill,” to the House of Representatives in 1957 served as a turning point in the history of healthcare legislation in the United States. The Medicare program, born from a succeeding bill called the Social Security Amendments of 1965, now covers the healthcare costs of millions of older Americans through the Social Security program. However, Medicare was born from a series of compromises. The program was a product of legislators and various interest groups with competing visions of what healthcare in the United States should be. Skeptics of Medicare questioned the role of the government in providing healthcare, and worried that its interference would lead to more regulation of their businesses. Sponsors of Medicare disagreed, arguing that access to affordable healthcare was a fundamental human right. Thus, Medicare proved to be one of the most controversial domestic policy debates in the latter half of the twentieth century. The liberals of the Democratic party, such as John F. Kennedy, championed healthcare for older Americans. Yet, numerous healthcare bills died in congressional committees as various organizations, such as the American Medical Association, lobbied for its demise. Moreover, infighting between liberal and conservative factions of Congress impeded Medicare’s passing. It was not until Lyndon B. Johnson won the 1964 presidential election that liberals were able to pass the legislation, with a few concessions to conservatives. The story of Medicare continues to shape US debate over social welfare policy, as seen recent initiatives for healthcare reform.
Women have often been excluded, intentionally or not, from research into folklore. This paper aims to look at the role of females in the specific type of folk tale- the fairy tale. The focus is a comparison of a Brother’s Grimm story and a Japanese story, both Forbidden Chamber motifs. By looking at the history of fairy tales and specifically the historical role of women in their respective cultures, this paper will show the importance of using fairy tales to understand a culture. Since the comparison of Japanese tales to Western is lacking, they are open to interpretation and study. The paper will end with a comparison between the Grimm Brother's Fitcher's Bird and the Japanese The Bush Warbler's House.
This presentation explains my independent study research on Hip-Hop music as a cultural artifact that exposes a violent culture in a world that is so quick to blame Hip-Hop music for the violence seen in America. Using the example of “The Blacker the Berry” by “Kendrick Lamar, I examine the roots of violence in our society by dissecting the structural and cultural racism presented in his lyrics. I argue that through Hip-Hop music, we can gain an understanding of the factors at play, such as cultural anti-blackness, that perpetuate the oppression of African Americans in this country. I tie this into Michele Alexander’s The New Jim Crow and my experience as a literacy tutor at SCI Smithfield prison.
Although women’s rights seem like a particular type of human rights, the two can come into conflict when human rights support limited intervention in the public sphere and the continued levels of impunity for men in the name of culture. My hypothesis is that Mexican government initiatives to end Femicide have been ineffective because of the prevalent machismo cultural influences of the biggest source of entertainment, telenovelas, as well as, various other pop cultural influences. This is supported by a liberal split between private and public sphere, which is designed to limit the jurisdiction of the government and its effect on women. To counter the effects of this split, various NGO’s, social movements and legislation have attempted to end femicide in Mexico. My study concluded the toxic masculine culture, machismo, which is perpetuated through police and government impunity as well as many aspects of popular culture, is, indeed, the cause of dangerous living conditions for women and the sole reason that the steps made in preventing femicide have not succeeded. The best and only way to truly end femicide in Mexico would be to not only challenge this cultural norm but also stop its existence, by preventing its transmission to future generations. During my presentation I will define Machismo and Femicide, discuss distinct cultural aspects that allow Machismo, through discussing a popular telenovela, Teresa, as well as discussing some of the solutions that NGO’s, the Mexican government and the UN has implemented in order to stop Machismo.
Higher education institutions have come a long way in making their campuses more religiously diverse, but there is still a good deal of work to be done in order to truly have a fully religiously diverse higher educational system that is accommodating to as many students, faculty, and staff as possible. There are several ways to go about doing this but, something must be done or we will not be able to change America’s campuses, communities, and the nation as a whole into a more accepting and tolerant one. Using the work of several scholars in the fields of peace studies, religious studies and higher education, this session will evaluate the historical ties of education and religion, what is being done in the current day, and where higher education can expect to go.
Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) are a highly sought after sport-fish, inhabiting rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in 47 states across the United States. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed alone, smallmouth bass fishing has an annual economic impact of $630 million. Given its size and upper watershed location, water quality in the Juniata River basin highly influences the entire Chesapeake Bay watershed. In the last 15 years, smallmouth bass populations have been historically low and poor water quality has been cited as a proximate cause. At the organismal level, the smallmouth bass appear to be reproductively stressed resulting in poor reproduction. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), which mimic estrogen, have been attributed to the recent poor reproduction in the Juniata River basin. EDCs from agricultural herbicides concentrate in tributaries to the Juniata River, as spring herbicide application and increased rain events coincide. An in depth assessment of 30 subwatersheds to the Juniata River with varying land uses, showed that intensity of agriculture (percent land use type within subwatershed) is not only correlated with in-stream herbicide concentrations, but also other basic water chemistry parameters that are potentially harmful to smallmouth bass populations. Further, our assessment highlights the high prevalence of intersexing and morphological changes to smallmouth bass in relation to agriculture’s impact on water quality.
Examining the representation of the Native Americans’ intangible and tangible heritage within traditional museum structures reveals a long history of Eurocentric colonial frameworks of representation. Due to the colonization and looting of artifacts, institutions and museums have developed an established model for how they choose to display indigenous heritage. Reflected in their collections and interpretations, museums often conserve from the point of view of the historical cabinet of curiosities; essentially they preserve artifacts as if they belong to an extinct culture.
However, many of these cultures that are on display through their ancient artifacts are still alive, and have rich personal connections and educational resources into which museums must tap. Unfortunately, the established European understanding of so-called primitive cultures ignores much of the rich cultural contexts from which the heritage derives. By deconstructing the established narrative representation of Native culture, we find different manners of museum interpretation and cross-cultural understanding. Particularly through new expansions with UNESCO’s World Heritage initiative, technological conservation techniques, and new models of exhibition, indigenous forms of heritage can thrive.
The modern ideal of free speech is being challenged on many social fronts, especially on college campuses. For many, the virtues of free speech are too numerous for any other negative consideration nor basis for censure. However, the disease of hate speech and its victims present serious challenges to the marketplace of free speech. This paper dives into the challenge of free speech and covers the legal principles surrounding speech in the United States while showing these laws to be deficient in comparison to other international standards. Much consideration is given to the issue of hate speech and how this material violates Mill’s idea of a true marketplace by being knowingly and intentionally distorting information. Hate speech has also created a plague that effectively removes the social standing and dignity of its victims, which clearly goes against modern liberal democratic ideals. Finally, an economic analysis is conducted into free speech by interjecting a cost-benefit analysis framework that attempts to calculate the harms of hate speech on society. Free speech has numerous merits, while also generating serious costs. This paper actively challenges and exposes free speech’s social demerits, especially toward minority groups who are the most targeted and vulnerable to its damages. Laws, such as those in Australia, New Zealand, Canadian, and broadly in Europe, are put forth as one method of reducing the costs of hate speech.
My research focuses on the appearance of mental health issues in rap songs during the past fifteen years. I argue that there is a more explicitly shared rhetorical vision on mental health issues developed by rappers from 2002 to 2017, despite obscuring fantasy themes of bragging and deflection. Therefore, I use Bornman’s fantasy theme methodology to do a sensitive textual analysis of these rap songs determining fantasy themes, fantasy types and the shared rhetorical vision these artists create about mental health. This methodology assumes that language creates meaning and that there is a symbolic convergence of meaning that occurs between speaker and audience. Mental health is defined by the National Institute of Health as “an emotional, psychological and social state of well-being.” Issues regarding mental health can result in a lack of handling stress, a lack of empathy and decision making.
The focus of my study relies on four samples from the past fifteen years: the years 2002, 2007, 2012 and 2017. Within this 4-year sample of convenience from the Billboard top 100, I examine five songs dealing with mental health issues. There has been an evolution in the shared rhetorical vision, where a more explicit convergence on health issues emerges between artists and audiences. In the year 2002, rappers talk very indirectly about mental health, if at all. In the following years, rappers approach mental health issues with more direct fantasy themes. However, they use bragging to cover up their more physical description of how mental health issues affect them.
This study argues that artists are more open about health issues, but the presentation is still problematic. The audience’s symbolic convergence with rappers, that results in a shared rhetorical vision, may indicate a change in society’s openness to discuss and or acknowledge mental health issues.
With the ever-growing push toward student achievement, class time is becoming all the more valuable. Time spent on reviewing homework during class takes up a significant amount of the school day. Mathematics homework has been shown to be effective for students’ academic achievement, and we strive to find a way to review it that is just as productive. We explore different feedback techniques that include variations in time use, peer involvement, and timing of feedback. During student teaching, this research focused on students in a rural high school in their math courses. With the goal to determine which strategy is most practical in various situations, we used qualitative and quantitative data from comprehension questions and student surveys to assess individual confidence, preference, and daily growth.
Self-determination theory has come to be defined both internally and externally. Although theory exists about both types of self-determination, policy-makers have, by way of the contemporary liberal structure, enshrined internal self-determination and ignored the external. In doing so, policy-makers have relegated matters concerning external self-determination to realist, interest-motivated forces. Spain has historically endorsed the internally grounded definition of self-determination via its participation in the invasion of Iraq. It has however, utilized the externally based theory in order to justify its rule over two enclaves in Northern Africa, Ceuta and Melilla. Catalunya, presently one of 17 Autonomous Communities of which Spain consists, has both historically and contemporarily been repressed to the benefit of the rest of Spain. Despite Spain clouding other ambitions in the right of self-determination both internal and external, the Spanish state has consistently, and at times violently, repressed calls for Catalan self-determination. Since its transition to democracy in the 1970’s, Spain has claimed to espouse the ideals of liberal democracy, however, its treatment of Catalunya exposes a deep-seated realism remaining within its foreign policy.
In any interaction between two or more people one person takes on the role as leader. In a study group situation peer tutors are appointed leaders and as such have the responsibility to teach students and engage them in their learning process. To study the interaction between students and peer leaders of a study group I conduct an ethnomethodology. With content analysis, I evaluate the naturally occurring talk between the study group participants and group leader. I observe the conversation and power structures in these leadership styles through their verbal and nonverbal language.
My research is a secondary data analysis project. The data I use are videos from 2006 recorded by Dr. Lynn Cockett. These videos capture five organic chemistry study groups lead by student tutors. Three of these tutors are female and two are male. Each group varies in size from three to eight students. Per tutor there are 5, 10, 13, 13, and 16 recorded study sessions of approximately 1 hour. Dr. Cockett used this data to observe interaction structure, environment, organization and participation in peer supported learning groups. Out of this data set, I use one median session per tutor (5) to analyze how leadership affects student engagement.
Organizations look to create more efficient groups through engaging leaders. This content analysis suggests that naturally occurring talk and interactions in conversation patterns of leaders affect student engagement. I argue that with a content analysis I can define an authoritarian, democratic or laissez-faire leadership style. Within this analysis, I explore these styles for their transactional and transformational potential to engage students.
Research was conducted at four constructed wetland sites of similar composition, in Central Pennsylvania, in order to determine whether there is a relationship between the density of frugivorous bird species and the density of invasive berry producing plants. Berry scores, based on abundance and density, were calculated to rank each of the four wetlands from least to greatest availability of invasive berry producing plants. We found no significant correlation between frugivorous bird density and invasive berry density (r= -0.322, p= 0.678). Conservation scores were assigned to each species. We found no significant correlation between the density of frugivorous birds of conservation concern and berry density (r= -0.453, p= 0.547). An analysis of species richness for birds by site also produced statistically insignificant results (r= 0.239, p= 0.761). Overall, the study was unable to confirm that there is a relationship between the density of invasive berry producing plants and the density of frugivorous bird species in wetland environments.
How do colleges and universities assess study abroad learning outcomes? Is it possible for a small college to reach the same level of accountability as larger universities that have offices and resources specifically dedicated to assessment? In this study, I first review some of the best methods for assessment by describing the ideal model: one that assumes unlimited resources. I argue that too often outcomes assessment in international education is not seen as meaningful or even possible unless it conforms to a high standard of good practices. I attempt to find a starting point for small colleges and universities in order to bridge the gap between ideal and realistic assessment models.
Lawrence Lessig, a renowned legal scholar, asserts that “copyright has always been at war with technology.” Since the invention and proliferation of digital computing however, this war has gotten more intense. Two of the most famous combatants in the Copyright-Technology War are The Pirate Bay and Napster 1.0. Napster 1.0’s ship was sunk by the music industry three years after its release, while The Pirate Bay has remained at sea since 2003. This paper addresses the question: Why did Napster die while The Pirate Bay survived? My expected finding was that US based Napster was crushed by stronger US copyright law, while Swedish based The Pirate Bay has benefited from weaker European copyright enforcement. But my research reveals a different answer. The skilled buccaneers of The Pirate Bay, thanks to their better corporate and technological structure, were able to better weather the storm of copyright enforcement than the Napster.
Hukou is a policy that restricts the free movement of Chinese within China. This policy has existed for ___ years. It played a role in the death of tens of millions of Chinese during the Great Leap Forward. Now it plays a controversial role in China's remarkable economic transformation. This paper looks at the different ways the Hukou policy has influenced the growth of the Chinese economy in the past 30 years, and the ways the Chinese government has used Hukou to structure their new, industrial economy. I ask: Can we blame Hukou for splitting China in half, by increasing the wealth of the urban upper class and by encouraging the exploitation of the rural lower class?
Pixel counting, a method of modal analysis, is a quantitative method for determining the abundances of different components in chondritic meteorites, as an alternative to the traditional method of point counting in the petrographic microscope. Point counting fundamentally relies on optical identification and how many points on a grid are counted. Grid size is often not recorded in the literature. Pixel counting relies on the physical area analyzed, the assumption that the area is representative of the whole sample, and the accuracy to which all components are outlined for image analysis. Here, pixel counting was applied to the H/L3.6 chondrite meteorite Tieschitz to acquire accurate ratios of chondrules to matrix and opaque minerals present in the sample. Previous work (Huss, G.R. et al. 1981) states the modal abundances in ordinary chondrites to be 60%-80% chondrule, 10%-15% metals/opaque minerals, and the remainder fine-grained matrix. Huss clearly defined his criteria for each component. Our analysis of Tieschitz reveals that the percentages of chondrules (including homogenous silicate grains, assumed to be chondrule fragments) and opaques are much lower than previously reported in Tieschitz. A 180 mm2 area was x-ray mapped at 10 μm/pixel, a resolution acceptable to resolve different components, but not ideal. Region maps of smaller areas (3.37 mm2) at higher resolution (3 μm/pixel) allowed more precise identification of opaques, chondrules and matrix. Preliminary analysis indicates that the sum of the area of all the chondrules in Tieschitz is less than the 60%-80% reported by G.R. Huss et al. (1981). Pixelcounting offers accountability in the sense that researchers can include their images in their work, and the image analysis can be scrutinized accordingly. For earlier point counting efforts, details such as definition of the target area, number of points counted, grid size used and optical images of the whole area would be advantageous to evaluate results, but these details have rarely been recorded. This work serves as a preliminary comparison of pixel counting in x-ray element maps with the traditional method of point counting.
Many theories of environmental ethics first begin from theoretical principles, establishing practical imperatives and concerns from these principles. In this view, the frameworks of anthropocentrism, biocentrism, and ecocentrism are typically kept separate from one another and regarded as entirely different theoretical entities. Despite the theoretical separation of these different frameworks, I argue in this paper that a consequentialist view of the practical impacts of these systems should come before deontological discussions of theoretical principles. In a comparative sense, these ethical frameworks not only overlap, but can be conceived of as belonging to a single continuum based on the imperatives they give us as moral agents. A central thesis of this work is that in a consequentialist system comparing the practice of different environmental ethics, the distinction between “inherent” and “instrumental” value is not necessary to our comparison of these systems. As Norton observes in Epistemology and Environmental Values, “…pursuit of anthropocentric values results in policies similar to those based on reasonable applications of nonanthropocentric principles, provided that, in the former case, the whole breadth of human values is considered across sufficiently long frames of time” (1992). Through an exploration of scenarios in which anthropocentric and nonanthropocentric ethics can be united I will establish a common continuum. I will then examine the ends of this continuum and the factors influencing where theories are comparatively placed. The resulting account provides an understanding of the overlap of previously distinctly conceived environmental ethics and a general spectrum by which these ethics can be compared.
In my presentation, I will provide a brief introduction to my short film, “21 Missed Calls from Mom,” and then show the film. My short film is a psychological thriller about a socially isolated college student named Caroline who checks her phone one night to discover 21 missed calls and a voicemail from her mom, but when she listens to it, it is not her mother’s voice on the other end. In my introduction, I will talk about my goal in creating the film and conducting my film research, which was to analyze the film noir genre and applies some of its themes to a film of my own making. In addition, my experience making this film has helped me become a better writer and director.
The Las Vegas monorail has been in decline since its opening in 2004. With the amount of support and funding that went into the project, it is surprising that the rail is driving itself to ruin. Why, then, has the monorail been so unsuccessful? This paper investigates the factors that have caused the monorail to be a failure, as well as compare and contrast the Las Vegas monorail to the success of the Seattle monorail. To do this, public transportation in the United States must first be evaluated, followed by a critical analysis of private and governmental pushes, for and against, the Las Vegas monorail. The findings of this research show that the monorail has failed due to massive government oversight, lofty expectations that were wildly unrealistic, and documentation that shows that Clark County would benefit from the monorail company’s demise.
Employment is an important facet in society. Hiring is one of the more difficult tasks confronting organizations. However, organizational power structures and concepts of hierarchy have the potential to undermine an organization’s effort to find new hires as businesses try to manage both financial and human capital. Companies then have an obligation as much as labor markets allow to represent those who may not have much voice; and to make responsible, conscientious decisions with an awareness of the biases that we all hold. This essay aims to address how individual decision-making biases affect hiring decisions and how those decisions impact organizations. Various psychological biases can lay the groundwork for prejudices. An organization’s inability to allow candidates and employees to bring their diverse talents into their working lives can affect productivity, retention, and morale. One way to help mitigate bias in hiring decisions is through voluntary training exercises, which according to Dobbin & Kavlev’s 2006 research has shown better results with an increase from 9% to 13% increase in minority managers include black, female, and other minorities. Organizations can also decrease bias by using a scorecard, which sets out distinct and clear criteria for a candidate based on Kahneman’s 2011 research. Personal bias can be minimized by making hiring decisions in a group, and including a diversity professional in the group decision. By creating job and education requirements that do not exclude by arbitrary means, applicants can become employed and then utilize their diverse backgrounds to benefit organizations and society. This research hopes to advance the discussion to make bias-free decisions more the norm and community and to suggest ways for hirers to treat humans not as a resource to be exploited, but to be used, but a resource to be developed, nurtured, and sustained.
The rise of China is the most important geo-political change in global affairs in recent decades. It is important to examine how countries most affected by China’s rise have deal with this. This paper investigates Australia’s national security response to the rise of China. Has Australia pursued closer security ties with China, closer ties with the US, or a path of neutrality? Australia’s response to China’s rise allows us to assess competing theories in the field of international relations. This investigation finds that Australian national security policy remains grounded in the alliance with the US, and that Australia has “doubled down” on this alliance in the hope that the US will take a more forceful stand against Chinese expansionism. Structural realism provides the strongest theoretical framework for explaining Australia’s response to China’s rise.
Academia has long considered itself to be the bastion of intellectual development, self-discovery, and exchange of free thought. As students become more intellectually challenged, political ideologies become more central to one’s identity and may lead to division among peers. Is Juniata College an open forum for the exchange of free thought? Using qualitative research and a content analysis of student responses to a questionnaire, this research gauges the campus’s political climate, and examines how conservative students are perceived by their peers.
Increasingly, governments and international organizations employ economic sanctions as an alternative to military action in forcing compliance with political demands. This has led scholars to debate the efficacy of economic sanctions as an alternative to military action. To answer this question, I analyze four case studies in which economic sanctions were employed to achieve political ends: Iran, Iraq, North Korea, and Russia. What do these case studies teach us about the effectiveness of economic sanctions? I conclude with a description of the conditions that make sanctions an effective foreign policy option.
The discussion of a reunified Korean peninsula during the 1990's in South Korea was viewed as the pinnacle of discourse due to massive support from both the public and the government. As time passed and as the public’s opinion and the government’s stance on reunification diverged from one another, experts believe that there has been a decrease in support for a reunified peninsula. Utilizing research through examining opinion polls, analyzing actions taken during each presidential term, and determining party politics on the topic of reunification, I will show that the topic of reunification has become more prevalent in the present day than in the past.
A great debate today is whether euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide should be legal or not. Many people have their reasons as to why it should not be, but what if it was your elderly relative suffering from ALS? What if it was your best friend who, even though they are still young, has lived a wonderful life, taking every opportunity and risk to further their life, but is devastated when diagnosed with a terminal illness? What if it was you, and your quality of life is only going to decrease to the point that you have to completely depend on others in order to take care of yourself? Do you really want to continue living that way, or allow the people you love to suffer instead of ending their lives peacefully and with dignity?
Self-portraiture is a mechanism for female artists to control how they are represented in a work of art, allowing them to reclaim the role of the subject as opposed to being the object of desire. With this autonomy, artists are able to depict themselves in innovative or untraditional ways. Autopathography is the term used to describe personal accounts of illness that take a narrative or visual form, which can be used to establish communication about sickness between the artist and viewer. Frida Kahlo and Hannah Wilke expertly employ this method through their self-portraits.
A premier artist in the women’s movement in the 1970s, Hannah Wilke utilized her body to create sensual self-portraits that deconstructed the male gaze. Yet even though she pushed the boundaries of art during a period rampant with exploration, she was criticized for these images and labeled a narcissist due to her conventionally attractive nude figure. Thirty years later, Wilke was diagnosed with lymphoma. However, she refused to allow this disease to prevent her from creating works featuring her body, regardless of whether or not it was the traditionally beautiful physique she had previously exhibited in the seventies. Frida Kahlo was likewise known for depicting her illnesses, and the intense physical and emotional pain she suffered over the course of her life inspired a vast array of self-portraits in her oeuvre. Both Wilke and Kahlo employ autopathographic self-portraiture as a means of catharsis, and as a way to reinvent representations of the female form.
Arsenic is as ubiquitous in nature as it is toxic. Arsenic is particularly abundant in Southern Asia, while many studies have focused on areas like Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, disadvantaged regions within Nepal have also dealt with massive arsenic contamination. Despite the region’s pronounced arsenic concentrations within community water sources, few investigations have been conducted to understand the impact of the contamination on host health. This study aims to examine the effects of arsenic exposure on the gut microbiome within two disadvantaged communities in southern Nepal. Fecal samples (n=42) were collected from members of the Mahuawa and Ghanashyampur communities in southern Nepal. The 16s rRNA gene, a “thumbprint” or “nametag” gene for bacterial identification and quantification, was isolated and sequenced. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted to identify significantly enriched bacterial taxonomy and predicted gene pathways within the respective sampled communities and individuals with higher (> 10 ppb) arsenic concentrations. Analysis has revealed that there are several pathogenic and arsenic volatilizing bacteria, such as members of the Spirochaetaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae families, present in the microbial populations within the gut of the sampled individuals. Additionally, within the Ghanashyampur community, known to yield the highest arsenic contamination concentrations in the region, the predicted enriched gene pathways are suggestive of a pathogenic state within affected individuals. Many studies have sought to examine what has been called “the worst mass poisoning in history” in South Asia, but few of these studies have specifically dealt with Nepal and even fewer have dealt with the effects of arsenic on the gut microbiome. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of arsenic on the gut microbiome and how those effects may be compounding or influencing other health issues in these disadvantaged individuals.
The oxygen evolving complex (OEC) is the catalytic center within photosystem II of all photosynthetic plant species. This complex carries out the photoelectrical extraction of electrons from water, thus forming atmospheric oxygen, protons, and electrons. With this structure, both manganese catalase and manganese ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) also play key roles in this biological oxidative reaction. The research involved regards the synthesis of nitrogenous compounds that serve as precursors to mimic these oxygen-bridged dimers found within the OEC, Mn catalase and Mn RNR. Currently, we are focusing on the synthesis of pyridyl compounds containing methylpyridine or quinoline moieties which will eventually be coordinated with manganese. With these compounds, we hope to measure exchange coupling as well as incorporate density functional theory in order to investigate both the magnetic and electronic properties of these complexes. It is from this experiment that we hope to improve our understanding of the mechanism and intermediates that form within these important bioinorganic enzymes.
Given the obesity epidemic in this country, it is important to understand how people make choices about food. In a previous study, we found that it takes longer to shift from an unhealthy food than a healthy food. In this presentation, we will present our plans for our next research project. Prior research suggests that a task-switching training enhances executive control in children with ADHD. We would like to explore whether a task-switching training would decrease reaction times for switching away from unhealthy foods as well as improve choices of food in everyday life.
The purpose of our study was to determine if PA-native crayfish (family Cambaridae) have a feeding preference between stocked brown, Salmo trutta, or wild brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, and if crayfish from streams that are frequently stocked with brown trout differ in their preference for stocked brown or wild brook trout. Crayfish eating habits are important because they can be key predators, detritivores, and herbivores in their ecosystems. Changes in their eating habits could significantly change the food webs, which could have cascading biotic and abiotic effects. We collected crayfish from four sites, two that were close to sections of a stream that are frequently stocked and two sites that are not near stocked sections of a stream. We placed the crayfish in a 10-gallon tank and allowed them to choose between a piece of fillet from wild brook trout and stocked brown trout. The amount of time each crayfish interacted with the different food sources was recorded. The information obtained about the feeding habits of the crayfish can provide information about how the nutrients from the trout cycle through the aquatic ecosystem after being introduced and therefore the impact of trout stocking on these ecosystems.
Crayfish are important omnivores in aquatic ecosystems and are important food items for a large number of other aquatic and terrestrial animals as well. The rusty crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, is an invasive species that is taking over water systems throughout central and eastern regions of the United States. In this study, we initiated an experiment to estimate the abundance and quantify distribution of Rusty Crayfish in a popular cold-water trout fishery located in central Pennsylvania. Specifically, we worked at three sites on the Little Juniata River. To estimate abundance, we used mark and recapture techniques, capturing crayfish with minnow traps and marking them with visible implant elastomer. Concurrently, we carried out a tag retention in the lab in order to validate the mark recapture study in the field. We found that tag retention in the abdomen of rusty crayfish is very high (90% successful retention rate). We are currently examining mark recapture data from which we will be able to determine crayfish population size. This study will aid in determining at risk areas of rusty crayfish invasion in surrounding waterways of central Pennsylvania.
In order to better understand the metabolic pathways related to the quality of health span, we aimed to identify how specific sphingolipid signaling genes are related to lifespan. Sphingolipids are highly conserved components of the cellular membrane involved in cell signaling. Sphingolipid metabolism involves a cascade of enzymatic reactions, which produce various lipids that affect cell growth, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and survival. The initial rate limiting step of sphingolipid metabolism is reliant upon formation of the enzyme, serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). We aimed to test how sptl-2 and sptl-3, two subunits forming the catalytic core of SPT, function to modulate lifespan. To do this, we used the model organism C. elegans to analyze of sptl-2 and sptl-3 mutants by performing a lifespan assay. From the study, we found that lifespan is extended in the absence of sptl-2 and sptl-3. However, it is not known how the signaling mediated by sptl-2 or sptl-3 fits into one of the known cellular pathways that mediate aging.. Thus, greater understanding of sphingolipid signaling may help us identify factors that promote health by increasing lifespan.
A substantial portion of the post-Shoah theology has been androcentric in nature and neglects women’s experiences. The theologies focus mainly on the ubiquitous praise of masculine qualities of God. Post-structural feminist religious scholars, such as Judith Plaskow and Melissa Raphael have argued that God language and its inherent masculine use, oppresses those in patriarchal societies. By conducting a gendered analysis of three of the most popular post-Shoah theologies, one can identify and problematize the language that is used. Scholars contend that by problematizing the language used in post-Shoah theology, one can decenter the androcentricity of patriarchal religion.
Copper Hydride is a versatile reducing agent which allows for ligation of chiral ligands in order effect asymmetric reduction of pi-bonds. It has been broadly used for the asymmetric reduction of carbonyl compounds, imines, and conjugated alkenes, but it has not yet been applied to the reduction of strained heterocycles. This body of research focuses on the development of an asymmetric reduction of 2H-azirines to produce chiral aziridines. We screened several chiral ligand families (SEGPHOS, JOSIPHOS, GARPHOS), silicon-based hydride sources, and solvents to optimize yield and stereoselectivity.
The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence site fidelity in brown trout in the Little Juniata River, a tributary of the Juniata River. Forty-five fish were surgically implanted with transmitters and we tracked their movement using radio telemetry. The study has been ongoing since May 2017, with several site sweeps per week. Since September, the sites were sampled approximately once per week. We used the location data collected from these sweeps to define fish as “movers” or “stayers”. A "stayer" is an individual that is picked up at the capture site over 50% of the time the site was visited, and a "mover" was located less than 50% of the time. We are looking to see if site fidelity of these fish could be affected by factors such as interspecific competition, habitat quality, water chemistry parameters, and breeding behavior. Understanding brown trout site preference will help biologists get a better picture of brown trout behavior, and can apply this information to improve brown trout health and density.
There are numerous traditional tax havens that have been shown to facilitate tax evasion, money laundering, and unproductive migration of capital. However, the public has overlooked the possibility that the United States could serve an analogous role. Hence, the purpose of this work is to investigate if the USA serves such a role and should be considered a tax haven.
Split into three essential parts, the first part of our research lays out a definition of a tax haven. It also searches for universal characteristics that generally accompany the presence of offshore finance. The second chapter uses knowledge obtained from the first part in order to analyze the USA. It looks at compliance with international standards, federal and state law, and selected municipal environments. In particular, we examine areas such as that of trust and tax law and evaluate their effects on due diligence and beneficial ownership. The third part compares the USA to other known havens based on a variety of criteria. Our research finds, primarily due to secrecy opportunities, easiness of incorporation, and the treatment of nonresident aliens, that the USA possesses elements of damaging tax haven structures. Based on the findings, we conclude that various definitions would categorize the USA as a global tax haven.
Due to both recent terrorist attacks and the current political climate, America has seen a rise in hate crimes, hateful rhetoric, and support for values that undermine our democracy. Two traits highly related to support of anti-democratic policies are authoritarianism and threat perception. Current research on the relationship between authoritarianism and perceived threat is mostly correlational. This paper looks at the casual effects of perceived threat on not only authoritarianism, but also on support for anti-democratic policies. This study is a continuation of research done in past semesters, with an added condition of general threat. Participants took a survey before and after they watched either a terrorist attack video, general mass shooting video, or beach vacation advertisement. Individual difference scores were used to determine the effects perceived threat had on prejudice against specific out-groups, support for policies against those out-groups, and willingness to go against constitutional law. Implications for these findings are discussed.
Most attempted measures to control invasive Ailanthus altissima, commonly known as the Tree of Heaven, have not been successful in hindering its remarkable ability to spread to new environments. Since its introduction to North America in the late 1700s, this deciduous invader has outcompeted most native flora and even spread into populated urban areas. The most successful approach to date to preventing this tree species from increasing its range is to introduce a species of soil-borne fungus, Verticillium nonalfalfae, to individual trees as a cost-effective biocontrol method. Our study uses high-throughput sequencing technologies to analyze the complex microbial communities of bulk soil and root samples collected from Tree of Heaven individuals directly treated with V. nonalfalfae. Bulk soil and root samples were also taken from untreated trees as for comparison. This allowed for the visualization of changes in the microbiome of Tree of Heaven roots and associated bulk soil after the introduction of V. nonalfalfae. Although no change was observed in the number of bacterial taxa present between treatment groups, the communities of bacteria found in soil samples differed between samples associated with treated and untreated trees. Predictive metagenomic analysis suggests that this shift in the microbial community may be the result of a functional response to the declining health of infected trees.
Grounded in current literature on the power of collective narratives in perpetuating or disrupting violent structural conflict, conflict transformation, and critical indigeneity, this qualitative investigation of 15 Spanish-language interviews conducted with cutural workers participating in the Cultura Viva Comunitaria movement in Ecuador explores participant's views of the relationships between cultural work and conflicts. The presentation will examine points of interest and emergent themes within the qualitative analysis of the interviews. It will also include a discussion of best practices in qualitative investigation through a lens of decoloniality.
While many of us believe that art is made from passion, Wu-Tang Clan said it best, “Cash rules everything around me C.R.E.A.M.” This statement rings true even in the arts. Money influences art, and patrons influence artists. From Ancient Greece to present-day New York City, artists have been following their sources of funding. While artists are not motivated in the same way typical businessmen or producers are, supply and demand is still an essential factor. This atypical relationship has shaped the work of artists throughout history. The working artist has withstood and adapted to centuries of changing economic climates. As we enter a new era for the arts, it is essential to consider how artists will continue to be sustained and improve their positions economically and socially.
Suppose we have a sample of genes from microscopic organisms taken from a hospital burn ward patient's infection, along with samples from several possible sources of the infection: contaminated linens, hospital surfaces, and flora from a doctor's hands. How can we determine whether the infection was most likely caused by bacteria from the linens, the surfaces, the unwashed hands, or some combination of the three -- or another source entirely? I will introduce two implementations of a Bayesian hierarchical statistical model used to solve this problem: the open-source software SourceTracker2 and my implementation of the model in JAGS. I will discuss details of the model before comparing the two implementations with results from a simulation study.
I will be presenting on my capstone project: Resistance in Saisei, a serious narrative-based interactive story game in which the player faces fictional situations that mirror real-world social dilemmas.
In the game, the player will be required to make what will feel like difficult decisions that may challenge their current moral standards. The game explores a dystopian future world in which history has inevitably repeated itself once again in its typical cyclical fashion. Issues it focuses on include immigration, widening economic divides, and ideological warfare.
My presentation at LAS will include an explanation of how the game came to be, what my purpose in creating the game is, and a brief demonstration of the beginning of the game itself. The research involved in this project included creative writing, construction of interactive media, and learning how to code with HTML. The purpose is to signify to the audience that video games are a viable form of academic inquiry.
Our study focused on determining the relationship between endoparasite load and overall health of the Eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Eastern gray squirrels are found across the midwestern and eastern half of the United States and up into Canada. We collected samples from 60 gray squirrels brought to the Shamokin Mountain Squirrel Tournament in Middleburg PA. The squirrels were hunted from multiple counties across the state. We focused the first part of our study on evaluating techniques to identify and measure endoparasite load in the intestine and fecal matter. The first technique we tested was endoparasite extraction using a fecal float in table salt solution that was centrifuged. The microscopic parasites and eggs were skimmed off the top and examined. The second technique we used was dissecting the intestines from the pyloric sphincter below the stomach to the anus. We rinsed all organs in water through a mesh strainer, separated and examined the parasites extracted under the microscope. The last technique we tested was a different type of fecal float using magnesium sulfate instead of table salt. This technique did not require the solution to be centrifuged. The fecal float in magnesium sulfate was more successful than using sodium chloride because the latter started crystalizing before the slides could be examined. We plan to compare macroscopic and microscopic parasite counts with the body mass index and body fat. Bone marrow from the femur and tibia were measured as an indicator of body fat. We will also look for differences in parasite load between male and female squirrels.
Abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is an environmental issue that is commonly characterized by its acidity and high dissolved metal content in contaminated waters. It is estimated to have affected roughly 3000 miles of waterways within the state of Pennsylvania alone. To negate the harmful effects of AMD, several passive remediation operations have been constructed within the state of Pennsylvania. In this study we evaluated the microbial community structure and its functional capability associated with Middle Branch passive remediation system in central PA. Sediment and water samples were collected from each site within the passive remediation system and its receiving stream. Bioinformatic profiling of the microbial community structure and functional capability in association to environmental parameters of the remediation system were completed using several bioinformatic tools and pipelines. This study revealed shifts in microbial community structure from acidophilic bacteria in raw AMD discharge to a more metabolically diverse set of taxa (i.e. Acidimicrobiales, Rhizobiales, Chthoniobacteraceae). Vertical flow ponds and the aerobic wetland showed strong metabolic capability in facilitating sulfur redox environments. These overarching findings are integral to the understanding of designing effective passive remediation systems because it provides insight as to how certain bacteria (SRBs and SOBs) are potentially contributing to the remediation process. This study further supports previous investigations that have also identified the effectiveness of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRBs) in the process of removing sulfate and heavy metals from contaminated water.
Art has always been used to communicate thoughts and emotions. Yet different artists use various styles and methods to express their feelings about a variety of topics. Activist art, for example, involves conveying personal ideas, but is focused on inspiring societal and political change. To be considered activist art, a piece must examine topics of concern, social issues, tragedies, and/or the plight of the underprivileged. Rather than merely making statements about these subjects, activist artworks function as persuasive arguments to change viewers’ opinions. Therefore, the power of this art is found in its ability to inform people about overlooked matters in society, and the ways in which it can inspire action.
When combined in an appropriate fashion, activism and art can complement each other. All activist works aim to provoke change, but some are more effective than others. These politically inspired works can leave a powerful impact on viewers — if they adhere to certain criteria. But, how can you tell if activist art is successful? The works with the most success enable artists to engage viewers, raise awareness about issues, and provoke change in society. There is not simply one “formula” for the success of activist art; we must also consider circumstances surrounding the creation of the piece. Thus, it is only by taking a multifaceted approach that we can truly comprehend the success of an activist piece.
It started when I was eight years old, and just went downhill. I've been dieting, restricting, bingeing, and all around destroying my relationship with food for at least fourteen years. My reflection reviews how it began, and leads up to my lowest point. Now that I am in a more stable, healthy place, I think it's important to share this story.
After learning of current U.S President Donald Trump's decision to remove the United States from the Paris Climate Agreement, I was interested in examining why or why not the United States should leave this pact. I first address why Trump wants to withdraw and then explain why these reasonings are flawed in relation to their effects on American sovereignty, economics, and the environment. Additionally, my focus is on how leaving this agreement could affect the U.S. and the rest of the world. Finally, I will address the backlash President Trump's announcement received and how the average citizen can get involved in improving the United States' environmental reputation.
Psychopathy is traditionally conceived as a psychological disorder marked by affective, interpersonal, and behavioral facets. Affective facets include callousness, low expressivity, lack of guilt or remorse, and a lack of prosocial emotional response. Interpersonal facets include manipulation and grandiosity. Behavioral facets include impulsivity and aggression. The present study used a validated measure of self-reported psychopathy to assess correlations between performance on a face-word Stroop task and psychopathy scores. Furthermore, we assigned participants to either a neutral or fearful autobiographical emotional memory task to examine how an emotional prime would affect our results. In accordance with the enhanced-selective-attention hypothesis, the current study predicted that people higher in psychopathy would have lower average response times during a task that required participants to name a word that was superimposed over an emotional face image. In accordance with the distress-specific hypothesis and attention-to-eye hypothesis, we expected to find a significant positive correlation between psychopathy scores and response time on the fearful face-stroop task, since people higher in psychopathy would take longer to identify fearful faces. Although observed difference in response times for this task was expected to be most significant for fearful faces, we predicted that priming for fear through an autobiographical emotional memory task would mediate this response by allowing individuals higher in psychopathy to more readily process an emotion congruent to their own. This research adds to our current understanding of psychopathy, selective attention, response to emotional stimuli, and the influence of congruent emotional priming on distress perception for individuals higher in psychopathy. Our results will be presented at the 2018 Juniata College Liberal Arts Symposium.
Decision trees are a simple, but often inaccurate model to predict results of desired variables in a data set . However, with a large group of decision trees combined together, modeling becomes much more accurate and better predictions from data can be crafted. This model, called a random forest, takes multiple different decision trees and combines them to create some of the more effective prediction models that can be fitted to data. Random forests c an handle a large amount of variables, and often are much more accurate than most other commonly-used modeling techniques. For this research, the responses of several data sets were analyzed using the random forest model. These were from the Environmental Protection Agency and contain various stream quality variables as well as the presence of certain types of bacteria present in 1400 stream sample sites around the United States. The country is divided into nine regions called Ecoregions, and the random forest model is used to predict ecoregion based on these variables, and to see which variables have most influence on classifying streams.
Dr. Eureka is a recent puzzle game reminiscent of the Towers of Hanoi challenge that was designed to test children’s critical thinking and fine motor skills. In this project, we take the first steps toward finding the maximum number of moves needed to obtain any of the possible configurations. We represent the game in an object-oriented way so that we can use a computer to answer our questions, then use this representation to count and list legal game states. We also describe an algorithm to solve any configuration of the game non-optimally.
As the main deliverable for our honors research, we have developed a cross-platform mobile application. The application, Bizi Marketplace, will serve as a student-focused online marketplace where Juniata students can buy and sell various items such as clothes, electronics, and textbooks. We will be outlining what went into our research and development to provide a toolkit for those looking to further explore application development, along with showcasing our progress with both the functionality and user experience.
An Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model was created through the conditional knockout of γ-secretase, a protease complex known to be directly involved in the formation of amyloidβ plaques which are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Knockout of γ-secretase was targeted specifically within the oligodendrocytes, cells which are responsible for myelinating axons within the central nervous system, of the mouse. These conditional knockout mice display a unique phenotype that correlates to the non-cognitive symptoms of AD. To better understand the pathways that may explain this observed phenotype, Next-gen sequencing was performed on samples from the Striata of mice to generate a transcriptome. The Striatum, a heavily myelinated region of the brain, is an important part of the body’s motor and reward systems in which dysfunction leads to similar phenotypes seen within the AD mouse model. Analysis of transcriptome data using the bioinformatics tool Cuffdiff generated a list of 123 differentially--expressed genes within the mouse model. Genes recognized as significantly expressed included oligodendrocyte differentiation markers such as Ugt8a, Mog, and Mobp. This analysis confirmed pathways suspected to be affected by the conditional knockout of γ-secretase, such as those involved in neuronal development and myelination. It also revealed new pathways that may be further investigated as therapeutic targets for the treatment of AD.
My research examined the relationship between mindfulness meditation and inhibition, anxiety, fatigue, and impulsivity. Inhibition is the ability to inhibit distractions and focus on specific tasks at hand. Mindfulness-based stress reduction meditation is a method for clearing one’s mind by focusing on one’s breathing, allowing the participant to be present in the moment. I will be presenting on my results.
Atheism has long been viewed with a negative connotation, and atheists seen as lesser than their religious counterparts. For centuries they have been ridiculed, outcast, and viewed as nihilists by the rest of the population. However, atheism is beginning to dominate in some regions of the world, and is sure to spread from there. Not only is atheism growing, but the countries where it is most prevalent appear to be thriving as well. Considering the recent spread of atheism and its correlation with a thriving society, we must reconsider the long-standing notion that an atheistic society lacks that which religion can provide and challenge the notion that religious belief is correct position simply because it is the popular one.
First, we must understand why atheism is a more intellectual compelling position than that of theism. Atheism, unlike theism, does not contradict some of our most impressive and compelling scientific arguments, nor does it have a less intellectual argument for creation. Then, we must also consider how atheism is better able to explain the world around us. The evils of the world, which contradict the popular theistic omni-creator, do not expose the same type of flaw in atheism, nor is the atheist required to make moral exception. Finally, we must recognize that neither position should be held dogmatically, and that there is always a chance that either the theist or atheist may be proven wrong. It is only through interpretation of all the information available that either side can make a truly justified decision.
There are many different types of bacteria that live inside of a host. The interactions between them generate complicated networks that are usually beneficial for bacteria but harmful for the host. Understanding these interactions helps us better define mechanisms of disease development and health status. Here, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) were used as the model organism to observe the expression of Escherichia coli (E. coli) functional genes both in vivo (in C. elegans) and in vitro (cultured). As well as within three different host genotypes: wild type, an insulin-receptor mutant that increased lifespan (daf-2) and a FOXO transcription factor mutant that decreased lifespan (daf-16). A customized RNASeq protocol was created to help us isolate and prepare mRNA from the gut microbiome of C. elegans. Subsequently, mRNA underwent cDNA synthesis and library preparation for high-throughput sequencing. A bioinformatics pipeline was employed to filter out sequences that did not belong to E. coli and to identify the level of expressed functional pathways and genes. Differential gene expression analysis showed that genes involved in biofilm formation were overexpressed in the host as compared to cultured E. coli, suggesting a mechanism of self-protection for the bacteria inside a host. Genes that code for precursors and products in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis, which are important for immune and stress responses, were also present in host-associated E. coli. These differential gene expressions tells us how E. coli are able to respond to environment changes by synthesizing proteins that maximize their survival. Our results show that the transcriptomics method we developed can be used to explore future targets involving host-microbial interactions that will be useful in pinpointing mechanisms for disease development and therapeutic interventions.
Photosynthetic absorption peaks in the red and blue portions of the visible light spectrum. Light around the green portion of the visible light spectrum is relflected as well as infrared light. The relationship of absorbed light to reflected light can give an idea of the total light absorbed by the plant serving as a potential analog for the health of the plant. A Raspberry Pi system was constructed to collect temperature, humidity, and images of plants for analysis. An isolated study and field study will be conducted exploring various relationships.
The decline of young-of-the-year (YOY) smallmouth bass (SMB, Micropterus dolomieu) recruitment and adult densities in the Susquehanna River basin since 2005 raises concern for the health and well being of the fishery. Our study focused on understanding the feeding ecology of YOY SMB in the upper Juniata River watershed, a major tributary to the Susquehanna River. We studied the mainstem of the upper Juniata River, and the major tributaries forming and joining the river. We sampled the YOY smallmouth bass for a two-year period during the summer of 2016 and 2017. Our specific objectives were to 1) characterize the diet of SMB and a potential invasive competitor, the rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus), 2) document the physical condition and external health of individuals, and 3) evaluate the effectiveness of gastric lavage to extract diet contents at an early life history stage. A subset of individuals was sacrificed to check lavage efficiency and these individuals were also sent to be examined for histopathological anomalies that may result from pharmaceutical contamination (i.e., endocrine disrupting compounds) that is considered to be a likely cause of SMB decline. We also quantified habitat conditions using rapid visual techniques and ecological health of each site following the protocols for the Pennsylvania Index of Biotic Integrity for wadeable freestone streams. PA IBI scores (range 34 – 67) and habitat conditions (range 46 – 70%) were rather poor in both years. In summer (July and August) 2016, YOY SMB were numerous and were in excellent health, but were nearly absence during the same time in 2017. Few external anomalies consisted of parasites only. Most individuals were full of prey items, which on average consisted of about half aquatic prey and half terrestrial or neustonic prey. Rusty crayfish diet contents lacked any resemblance to diet contents in YOY SMB. Gastric lavage techniques were effective at removing gut contents and only a few individuals were found to have stomach contents remaining when dissected in the lab. Furthermore, nearly all YOY SMB fully recovered from field lavage experiences. Only 2 individuals died, and this was likely due to extreme river surface water temperatures (89 F) at the time of sampling. Thus, gastric lavage is a safe and effective technique to study YOY SMB feeding ecology and important links between recruitment, diet, and food quality without having to kill numerous fish.
Sentinel networks composed of general practitioners represent a powerful tool for epidemiologic surveillance.
In this study, completed with the Réseau Sentinelles (the national sentinel surveillance network of France), we have composed an inventory of sentinel surveillance networks focusing on primary care on a global scale. This descriptive study of sentinel surveillance networks was conducted between July 2016 and December 2017. This study includes primary health care sentinel surveillance networks composed of general practitioners collecting data on an ongoing or regular basis from daily patient care. Each network had to fill out a descriptive survey for inclusion.
A total of 49 of the 70 identified and contacted networks were included in this study, yielding an overall response rate of 70.0%. Of the 34 countries included in the study, 26 were European, which made up 76.4% of included countries and 69.4% of all included networks. All networks were composed of general practitioners (ranging from 3 to 2,500). All except one network were collecting epidemiologic data on an ongoing basis. Of the 49 networks, 44 (93.6%) were monitoring influenza.
In addition to the descriptive portion of this study, a website was created to share collected data and develop collaboration between networks. Further, additional work was done in the form of a thesis on the effects that country-specific socioeconomic characteristics have on sentinel surveillance networks.
Unconventional natural gas extraction is on the rise globally. These operations clear land for well pad construction, produce brine, and drill wells to crack natural shale formations to extract oil and gas. The environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) are not well understood, but recent studies suggest that fracking is impacting both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. One area of interest when studying the impact of fracking on ecosystems is the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of metals, such as mercury (Hg), which has the potential to impact both aquatic ecosystem and human health. In aquatic ecosystems isopods, such as crayfish, are considered ideal biological indicators for aquatic pollutants due to their high pollution tolerance, non-migratory nature, and ideal size to obtain tissue samples from. Research shows that mercury and other metals tend to accumulate in muscle tissues, the hepatopancreas, and the crayfish gills. This study set out to explore plausible links between unconventional natural gas extraction, Hg bioaccumulation in crayfish, and the possible effects this may have on hepatopancreas and gill morphology. Preliminary ANOVA results indicate that the number of well pads upstream of a stream site are affecting the total amount of mercury found in crayfish muscle tissue (p=0.001, F=14.74).
The Forbes Expedition of 1758 served as a major turning point in the French and Indian War, the North American theater of the global conflict known as the Seven Years War. Beginning in Carlisle, British General John Forbes’ troops marched westward to capture Fort Duquesne, a French stronghold that would be taken and rebuilt as Fort Pitt in present day Pittsburgh. Pursuing a “protected advance,” Forbes ordered forts built about every forty miles of the road. Fort Dewart, one of these forts, was erected at the gateway to the Allegheny mountains in August of 1758. Artifacts have been recovered from Dewart’s site that provide insight into the importance of this largely overlooked stop along Forbes’ Road. This presentation will provide an evaluation of these artifacts along with comparison to archaeological finds at other fort sites, archival primary sources, and expansive secondary sources, to create a deeper understanding of the significance of a largely underrepresented piece of American history: Fort Dewart.
Hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, is used to extract natural gas by injecting a mixture of water, sand, and various chemicals at high pressure to fracture the shale formations, which allows natural gas to flow. This practice has recently become prevalent in states, such as Pennsylvania and Ohio, and the rate of fracking is expected to increase to meet the growing global energy demand. However, its effects on the surrounding environment (i.e. air, surface water, and groundwater) are largely unknown. Microorganisms respond quickly to environmental disturbances. Consequently, we sought to compare the microbial communities of streams located in watersheds with fracking activities to communities in streams in watersheds without fracking to determine the biodegradation potential of those communities in response to fracking inputs. Samples were collected from multiple streams (n=9) and source samples in PA from 2012 to 2016 to elucidate hydraulic fracturing’s impact. Briefly, community DNA (metagenomic) and community RNA (metatranscriptomic) were extracted from those samples and sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute. Bioinformatics analysis of the DNA and RNA sequence data was mainly done with the Integrated Microbial Genomes bioinformatics pipeline to compare differences in the functional potential and activity of the naturally occurring microbial communities. This study revealed that certain assemblages, such as halophiles, were enriched in streams based on the presence of hydraulic fracturing in the watershed. These enriched bacteria could be useful as biomarkers for impacted streams. A functional response to hydraulic fracturing was identified as well. Notably, several pathways that relate to antibiotic resistance were enriched, which could be due to the use of biocides in fracking fluid. Overall, this study indicates fracking has many impacts on microbial communities in nearby streams and contributes to the growing body of information on fracking’s impact on the environment, specifically the effects it has on the biodegradative capabilities of those communities, as well as highlighting the need for additional research to definitively link these impacts to fracking.
The fragmentation rules for electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-CID MS) differ greatly from the rules for electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS). With the goal of elucidating the fragmentation pathway of alkali metal-cationic adduct ions of organic molecules in ESI-CID mass spectrometry, dibenzylated and tribenzylated polyphenolic compounds and their selectively deuterated isotopologues have been previously synthesized, and analyzed with ESI-CID MS and DFT calculations. In this study, we continue to expand upon the subject by synthesizing three tetrabenzylated isomers, and their selectively deuterated isotopologues. From the appropriate trihydroxybenzaldehyde, the starting material is sequentially labelled with differently deuterated benzyl moieties. A Dakin reaction is used to access the aldehyde position for benzylation. X-ray crystallography confirms the structures of monobenzylated and dibenzylated species that would otherwise be ambiguous in 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Here, we describe the synthetic routes for each isomer, as well as potential modeling and fragmentation outcomes.
Internet-connected lightbulbs, outlets, thermostats and other applicances promise to be the way of the future for our homes. But right now, these smart home technologies offer very little in the way of intelligence outside of voice and smartphone control. In order for smart home accessories and systems to reach a broader market and actually bring intuitive, useful and worthwhile features to our abodes, the "automation" in home automation needs to be emphasized.
Historyically, smart home systems have been centered around predetermined schedules and simplistic geofencing to create intelligent, automated home control. These inflexible constraints ignore the larger picture of how you, as the inhabitant of a home, may be thinking or feeling at a given time. So by studying and integrating one's daily habits, emotions and other self-quantifiers, a sophisticated and reactive smart home system can be realized.
Population declines and disease incidence in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Susquehanna River basin have been linked to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) as a likely causative agent. Nothing is known about EDC dynamics in the upper Juniata River basin, and specifically how EDC patterns may vary with hydrologic conditions and landscape characteristics. We sampled water in the main stem of the Juniata River and at 5 major tributaries across a range of discharges (e.g., peak storm flows, descending flows, base flows, etc.) and landscape characteristics over a 2-year time frame during the summers of 2016 and 2017. Samples were analyzed for EDCs measured as total estradiol equivalents (EEQ, ng/L). We also collected information on pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and total dissolved solids during each sampling event to identify possible connections between hydrologic conditions and variation in EDC concentrations. We found extremely high spatial and temporal variation in EDCs concentrations. Concentrations varied highly within sites at the same time, within sites at different times, among sites, and between years, but levels thus far have not surpassed the 1 ng/L threshold considered to be a concern for fish health. Thus far, we could not detect a trend in EDC concentrations along a continuum of the Juniata River downstream of the wastewater treatment plant. Additionally, our current analyses cannot link variation in EDC concentrations to discharge, simple water quality measurements, or land use/land cover at 2 spatial scales, but early indications suggest that EDCs are present in quantities that should be considered important for addressing ecological health in the broader Susquehanna River basin.
This project is an examination of the links between language’s effect on thought, grammatical gender, and French feminist literature. The first section is an analysis of the work of numerous linguists who have researched the hypothesis of linguistic relativity by exploring how speakers’ cognition is affected by the grammatical gender system of their native language. Though there is still little consensus on the theory of linguistic relativity, researchers like Boroditsky et al., Andonova et al., and Belacchi and Cubelli present compelling evidence that the presence or lack of grammatical gender in a language can have measurable effects on speakers’ categorization of gendered nouns and, ultimately, on speakers’ perceptions of biological gender. Their findings suggest that in languages that mark two grammatical genders, where the default is masculine and the marked form is feminine, speakers may, either consciously or unconsciously, believe the feminine (and females) to be inferior to the masculine (and males). The second section applies the implications of these findings to the works of French feminist writers who belonged to the Deconstruction school of thought. Writers like Hélène Cixous, Monique Wittig, and Anne Garréta, who worked to subvert the traditional Western philosophical narrative of diametrical opposites (light to dark, speech to writing, male to female), made a conscious effort to deliberately use grammatical gender in unconventional ways. Both their awareness of grammatical gender’s influence on French speakers’ perception of biological gender and their desire to be included in the literary conversation (which had, for so long, been the exclusive domain of men) likely motivated these writers to invent unorthodox ways to represent gender and femininity in their narratives.
In Fyodor Dostoevsky’s writing, some characters have an absolute need to surpass their whole being. Friedrich Nietzsche writes his own proposal about a man who can bring the change needed in society a generation later in his übermensch theory. This paper compares Nietzsche’s theory as presented in Thus Spoke Zarathustra and Dostoevsky’s protagonists in Notes from the Underground, Crime and Punishment, and The Brothers Karamazov to portray that in Russian society, as depicted by Dostoevsky, the übermensch is more of a burden than a help and will fail in his goals due to his rejection by society.
Carbazole analogues have been known to show interesting fluorescent properties. A chromatography free synthesis of 1,8-dipyridyl-3,6-di-(tert-butyl)-9H carbazole (1) has been developed. The effect of binding different metals in order to fine-tune the photophysical and catalytic properties of 1, a potential L2X NNN pincer ligand, is an ongoing project in our lab. Initial studies of 1 performed in our group have demonstrated 1 to be a turn-on fluorescence sensor for zinc ions in both protic and aprotic solvents. This research will discuss the synthesis of a series of novel N-substituted 1,8-dipyridyl carbazoles and the effect different N-substituents have on the metal binding and optoelectronic properties of ligand system 1.
The transition from youth to emerging adulthood tends to mark a significant decline in religious participation across American religious traditions, and this decline is especially marked in more liberal Christian traditions. Unitarian Universalists, an extremely liberal American religious minority, are concerned by their perceived loss of emerging adults, yet almost no data exists on Unitarian Universalist emerging adults. In order to improve understanding of how their relationships with the faith change, I collected longitudinal data on 39 Unitarian Universalists who became emerging adults in 2014. A series of five surveys (distributed from September 2014 to December 2017) elicited both qualitative and quantitative responses in four categories: public involvement with the faith, personal relationship with the faith, future plans involving the faith, and personal fulfillment. Survey responses most notably show decrease in public involvement yet hope for increased future involvement. I present trends in my data and relate my original research to national research on emerging adults and religion. I argue that when highly involved Unitarian Universalist youth transition into emerging adulthood, while they express significant dissatisfaction with the transition process, they reimagine their relationships with the faith and carry great hope.
Rosie the Riveter is a cultural icon who symbolizes the strength and determination of the feminist movement, but, the American legend’s origins were not at all for this purpose. During the years of the Second World War, publications featuring Rosie reached all across the United States in order to encourage American women to join the work force. The campaign emphasized the national need for women to fill the void left by men when they went off to fight. This contradicted everything American women had been told; that their place was in the home and they had no business being in the workforce. Yet, women did take on labor-intensive jobs, and consequently felt confident, proud, and empowered by the work they did. The work varied regionally; in the Pittsburgh area, factory work focused on producing steel for weapons production, in the South the Higgins boat reigned and became one of the most notable contribution to the Allied victory at Normandy, and in California, women spent their days riveting away as they pieced together aircraft the troops used to scout out the enemy or drop bombs, and Vultee Aircraft set a new precedent as women were paid equal wages for equal work. Lastly, in Pittsburgh, mills ran twenty-four hours a day, and it was “the city that won the war,” and women were the workers that made victory possible. By entering the workforce, these women laid the foundation for the desire to be more contributing members of society. However, it appears that the working women of World War II are excluded from academic discourse of twentieth century feminism. The contributions of these women are glossed over by scholars, as if implying that the “Rosie the Riveters” played no role in the progress of American feminism.
3D printing is a process that has been around for more than 30 years and is used for rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing. Over the years, there has been and continues to be improvements made within this printing process. Advancements have not only been made on the printers, but the materials used to create the three-dimensional objects as well. Using resin to print a violin from a stereolithography 3D printer, I will investigate how well the frequency of each violin string matches that of a traditional wooden violin. I will also investigate how temperature affects the frequency of the 3D printed violin when it is left overnight in a warm room in the physics wing over a course of 5 days.
According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) between the years 2000 and 2016 there were 46,513 earthquakes worldwide. Seismic analysis and structural engineering are two fields that can work together to prevent further destruction to the infrastructures of cities and rural areas both. By examining waves of different amplitudes created by a hand-crafted shake table powered by a drill with a potentiometer (to create the different amplitudes), different structures will be tested on the shake table for their durability. The structures will vary in materials and design to find the optimal framework against seismic waves. In order to observe the stability of the buildings, cameras will be used from a birds-eye-view angle and a side view angle to detect the motion of the structures. Through the analysis of both the seismic waves and the movement of the buildings, the best structures will be determined.
In past two centuries, immigration policy has become an incredibly social, economic, and political force for reinforcing racial and social inequalities. The Trump administration, and the push for the wall has brought much attention to Mexican immigrants whether documented or not, which has highlighted America’s history of discriminative behavior in politics in regard to immigration. This examination will exploit Mexican Immigrants in the US since the late 1800s. It will detail and revive some of the hidden history of the Mexican-American experience in the United States. Immigration Policy’s role is a form of systematic oppression and social control for immigrants from our neighboring country, Mexico, since Mexicans and Mexican-Americans have endured discrimination and alienation, with no justice being served. Through the annexation of Texas, lynching, the Immigration Act of 1924, the Bracero program, and Reagans’ reform and control act, Mexican immigrants have repeatedly faced oppression in attempts to keep them as limited and vulnerable as possible.In past two centuries, immigration policy has become an incredibly social, economic, and political force for reinforcing racial and social inequalities. The Trump administration, and the push for the wall has brought much attention to Mexican immigrants whether documented or not, which has highlighted America’s history of discriminative behavior in politics in regard to immigration. This examination will exploit Mexican Immigrants in the US since the late 1800s. It will detail and revive some of the hidden history of the Mexican-American experience in the United States. Immigration Policy’s role is a form of systematic oppression and social control for immigrants from our neighboring country, Mexico, since Mexicans and Mexican-Americans have endured discrimination and alienation, with no justice being served. Through the annexation of Texas, lynching, the Immigration Act of 1924, the Bracero program, and Reagans’ reform and control act, Mexican immigrants have repeatedly faced oppression in attempts to keep them as limited and vulnerable as possible.
How does diversity effect you? Positively? Negatively? Juniata College has strived to create a collegiate culture that focuses on “Diversity and Inclusion”. Thru interviews conducted with the provost, students, and the head of Diversity and inclusion I will look to examine different minority students to see just how the system is working effectively or if at all.
In the span of six weeks from December 13, 1937 to January 1938, the Japanese military systematically slaughtered more than 300,000 Chinese soldiers and civilians, and raped an estimated 20,000-80,000 women. Despite the vast amount of research on the Nanjing Massacre, there is little representation of rape survivor testimonies and research. This research aimed to examine the roles of Chinese culture, politics, and gender, regarding the suppression of rape survivors of the Nanjing Massacre. The basis of my research and primary sources come from an immense collection of testimonies. My secondary sources come from a diverse selection of scholarly work from Chinese, Japanese, and Western sources. Throughout my research, I argue that the suppression of rape survivor testimonies came about because of Chinese Communism, gender roles, the failed Tokyo War Trials, and the victim blaming and shame culture of China. I also examine the impact of second generation Chinese and Chinese Americans in bringing awareness to the oppression of survivors, specifically, Iris Chang’s book, The Nanjing Massacre. The response of Japanese scholars and officials, both denial claims and scholarly research that works to bring about education, remembrance, and reparations. Ultimately, I found that the Chinese government propagandizes the Nanjing Massacre and the victims to further increase the loyalty of their party but fails to provide adequate assistances to the remaining survivors. Chinese politics and shame culture towards women suppressed the testimonies and forced many into poverty, suicide, and left many to live with horrific physical, mental, and emotional trauma.
Microstructural evidence of the timing and conditions of metamorphism can lead to new understanding of orogeny and its role in the emplacement and modification of ophiolites and other geologic components. The Ashe Metamorphic Suite (AMS) of the eastern Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina contains bodies of mafic and ultramafic rock that underwent varying grades of metamorphism during and after the multiple orogenies.We sampled and analyzed the petrography and geochemistry of multiple ultramafic bodies from the Blue Ridge Mountains north of Boone, NC to determine their metamorphic history.The mineral assemblages found in 30 samples collected from the two largest bodies in the AMS indicate several temperature constraints, all lying between 400 and 700°C.
Many ultramafic bodies in the AMS have a strong foliation defined by tremolite, chlorite and sometimes anthophyllite. Some elongate amphibole crystals crosscut the foliation and porphyroblasts of tremolite, which contain pseudomorphs of amphibole inclusions that are at a high angle to the foliation, indicating multiple stages of growth of tremolite and anthophyllite. Many chlorite-rich samples display crenulations; tremolite in these samples is parallel to foliation and sometimes forms polygonal arcs with respect to the crenulations. These differing temperature constraints and microstructural relationships indicate that at least some of the deformation occurred in the amphibolite facies and that peak metamorphism was reached during and after the deformation event.
The Appalachian Mountain system was created by a series of mountain building events, called orogenies, caused by continent-continent collision around 300 million years ago in the formation of Pangaea. After the break apart of Pangaea, the Appalachians weathered and eroded until they were almost gone. In the beginning of this era, ~65 million years ago, isostatic readjustment raised them into the mountains we have today. Within this system lies the Blue Ridge Mountains and a suite of heavily metamorphosed rocks, named the Ashe Metamorphic Suite (AMS). The AMS consists mostly of metabasalt, metasediment, and ultramafic rocks that have been altered by multiple metamorphic events. This study focuses on these ultramafic bodies, specifically the Todd body. Understanding the emplacement, deformation, and metamorphism of these ultramafic bodies could change our understanding of the orogenies of Eastern North America. Field-collected data indicates that the Todd body consists of several lenses rather than one contiguous unit, as it was previously mapped. These lenses are mineralogically distinct. We present updated mapping of this region in ArcGIS. Petrologic analysis of collected samples revealed two metamorphic grades are recorded within the body. The presence of the mineral anthophyllite records the peak metamorphic grade: the amphibolite facies. The thermal history of the Todd body records a transition from the amphibolite to upper greenschist facies.
An important part of an engineering education is learning how to apply theoretical knowledge in real life construction processes. A difficult part of an engineering/physics education is understanding and visualizing the magnetic fields. Magnetic fields are created by distributions of electrical charge. These fields are notoriously difficult to visualize and understand without the use learning aids. This project employs techniques learned in the engineering discipline, such as 3D modeling/printing and electronic circuits, to create models that will serve as visual aids for future physics and engineering/physics students. Using these processes, static models of five different magnetic fields are created, as well as one dynamic model of a magnetic field that will allow students to see the "flow" of the field in real time. The techniques used in creating the models are also detailed and displayed.
Ever since I was young I have always escaped into my mind, creating circumstances and situations that seem to heighten my world. I would day dream about being a spy, being an alien, being the president of the world. I could be anything I wanted. When I learned that acting was a possibility, I realized I could use this desire to explore different experiences to engage and entertain people. With that in mind, I realized that I could use my work to provide an escape for other people while also processing ideas that plague the world (i.e. racism, ableism, nihilism, et. al). I could use art to provide a beginning for a discussion, and engage people to create their own worlds or to dissect the current one in which we live. With that in mind, I’m utilizing the tools around me (cameras, digital editing, staff) to create a world that explores, “what would you do to get back what was lost?” I wanted to set this idea in a world where the stakes are high, so I decided to set this story 100 years in the future-researching possibilities of natural disasters and global shortcomings that would create an apocalyptic setting, then, as realistically as possible, portray the feelings of isolation and yearning that emerge as a response to losing something important and what ultimately fuels the search by constructing an aesthetic that visually represents isolation and yearning in a visual manner. Through this film, I was able to understand how ideas can manifest visually in film, and the level of clarity necessary for audience to comprehend the idea being communicated. More than anything, I want this to be a signal to anyone who watches that if one has an idea, they too can form it into something tangible which affects people.